Merge change 9990
[android/platform/external/e2fsprogs.git] / ABOUT-NLS
1 Notes on the Free Translation Project
2 *************************************
3
4    Free software is going international!  The Free Translation Project
5 is a way to get maintainers of free software, translators, and users all
6 together, so that will gradually become able to speak many languages.
7 A few packages already provide translations for their messages.
8
9    If you found this `ABOUT-NLS' file inside a distribution, you may
10 assume that the distributed package does use GNU `gettext' internally,
11 itself available at your nearest GNU archive site.  But you do _not_
12 need to install GNU `gettext' prior to configuring, installing or using
13 this package with messages translated.
14
15    Installers will find here some useful hints.  These notes also
16 explain how users should proceed for getting the programs to use the
17 available translations.  They tell how people wanting to contribute and
18 work at translations should contact the appropriate team.
19
20    When reporting bugs in the `intl/' directory or bugs which may be
21 related to internationalization, you should tell about the version of
22 `gettext' which is used.  The information can be found in the
23 `intl/VERSION' file, in internationalized packages.
24
25 Quick configuration advice
26 ==========================
27
28    If you want to exploit the full power of internationalization, you
29 should configure it using
30
31      ./configure --with-included-gettext
32
33 to force usage of internationalizing routines provided within this
34 package, despite the existence of internationalizing capabilities in the
35 operating system where this package is being installed.  So far, only
36 the `gettext' implementation in the GNU C library version 2 provides as
37 many features (such as locale alias, message inheritance, automatic
38 charset conversion or plural form handling) as the implementation here.
39 It is also not possible to offer this additional functionality on top
40 of a `catgets' implementation.  Future versions of GNU `gettext' will
41 very likely convey even more functionality.  So it might be a good idea
42 to change to GNU `gettext' as soon as possible.
43
44    So you need _not_ provide this option if you are using GNU libc 2 or
45 you have installed a recent copy of the GNU gettext package with the
46 included `libintl'.
47
48 INSTALL Matters
49 ===============
50
51    Some packages are "localizable" when properly installed; the
52 programs they contain can be made to speak your own native language.
53 Most such packages use GNU `gettext'.  Other packages have their own
54 ways to internationalization, predating GNU `gettext'.
55
56    By default, this package will be installed to allow translation of
57 messages.  It will automatically detect whether the system already
58 provides the GNU `gettext' functions.  If not, the GNU `gettext' own
59 library will be used.  This library is wholly contained within this
60 package, usually in the `intl/' subdirectory, so prior installation of
61 the GNU `gettext' package is _not_ required.  Installers may use
62 special options at configuration time for changing the default
63 behaviour.  The commands:
64
65      ./configure --with-included-gettext
66      ./configure --disable-nls
67
68 will respectively bypass any pre-existing `gettext' to use the
69 internationalizing routines provided within this package, or else,
70 _totally_ disable translation of messages.
71
72    When you already have GNU `gettext' installed on your system and run
73 configure without an option for your new package, `configure' will
74 probably detect the previously built and installed `libintl.a' file and
75 will decide to use this.  This might be not what is desirable.  You
76 should use the more recent version of the GNU `gettext' library.  I.e.
77 if the file `intl/VERSION' shows that the library which comes with this
78 package is more recent, you should use
79
80      ./configure --with-included-gettext
81
82 to prevent auto-detection.
83
84    The configuration process will not test for the `catgets' function
85 and therefore it will not be used.  The reason is that even an
86 emulation of `gettext' on top of `catgets' could not provide all the
87 extensions of the GNU `gettext' library.
88
89    Internationalized packages have usually many `po/LL.po' files, where
90 LL gives an ISO 639 two-letter code identifying the language.  Unless
91 translations have been forbidden at `configure' time by using the
92 `--disable-nls' switch, all available translations are installed
93 together with the package.  However, the environment variable `LINGUAS'
94 may be set, prior to configuration, to limit the installed set.
95 `LINGUAS' should then contain a space separated list of two-letter
96 codes, stating which languages are allowed.
97
98 Using This Package
99 ==================
100
101    As a user, if your language has been installed for this package, you
102 only have to set the `LANG' environment variable to the appropriate
103 `LL_CC' combination.  Here `LL' is an ISO 639 two-letter language code,
104 and `CC' is an ISO 3166 two-letter country code.  For example, let's
105 suppose that you speak German and live in Germany.  At the shell
106 prompt, merely execute `setenv LANG de_DE' (in `csh'),
107 `export LANG; LANG=de_DE' (in `sh') or `export LANG=de_DE' (in `bash').
108 This can be done from your `.login' or `.profile' file, once and for
109 all.
110
111    You might think that the country code specification is redundant.
112 But in fact, some languages have dialects in different countries.  For
113 example, `de_AT' is used for Austria, and `pt_BR' for Brazil.  The
114 country code serves to distinguish the dialects.
115
116    The locale naming convention of `LL_CC', with `LL' denoting the
117 language and `CC' denoting the country, is the one use on systems based
118 on GNU libc.  On other systems, some variations of this scheme are
119 used, such as `LL' or `LL_CC.ENCODING'.  You can get the list of
120 locales supported by your system for your country by running the command
121 `locale -a | grep '^LL''.
122
123    Not all programs have translations for all languages.  By default, an
124 English message is shown in place of a nonexistent translation.  If you
125 understand other languages, you can set up a priority list of languages.
126 This is done through a different environment variable, called
127 `LANGUAGE'.  GNU `gettext' gives preference to `LANGUAGE' over `LANG'
128 for the purpose of message handling, but you still need to have `LANG'
129 set to the primary language; this is required by other parts of the
130 system libraries.  For example, some Swedish users who would rather
131 read translations in German than English for when Swedish is not
132 available, set `LANGUAGE' to `sv:de' while leaving `LANG' to `sv_SE'.
133
134    In the `LANGUAGE' environment variable, but not in the `LANG'
135 environment variable, `LL_CC' combinations can be abbreviated as `LL'
136 to denote the language's main dialect.  For example, `de' is equivalent
137 to `de_DE' (German as spoken in Germany), and `pt' to `pt_PT'
138 (Portuguese as spoken in Portugal) in this context.
139
140 Translating Teams
141 =================
142
143    For the Free Translation Project to be a success, we need interested
144 people who like their own language and write it well, and who are also
145 able to synergize with other translators speaking the same language.
146 Each translation team has its own mailing list.  The up-to-date list of
147 teams can be found at the Free Translation Project's homepage,
148 `http://www.iro.umontreal.ca/contrib/po/HTML/', in the "National teams"
149 area.
150
151    If you'd like to volunteer to _work_ at translating messages, you
152 should become a member of the translating team for your own language.
153 The subscribing address is _not_ the same as the list itself, it has
154 `-request' appended.  For example, speakers of Swedish can send a
155 message to `sv-request@li.org', having this message body:
156
157      subscribe
158
159    Keep in mind that team members are expected to participate
160 _actively_ in translations, or at solving translational difficulties,
161 rather than merely lurking around.  If your team does not exist yet and
162 you want to start one, or if you are unsure about what to do or how to
163 get started, please write to `translation@iro.umontreal.ca' to reach the
164 coordinator for all translator teams.
165
166    The English team is special.  It works at improving and uniformizing
167 the terminology in use.  Proven linguistic skill are praised more than
168 programming skill, here.
169
170 Available Packages
171 ==================
172
173    Languages are not equally supported in all packages.  The following
174 matrix shows the current state of internationalization, as of August
175 2002.  The matrix shows, in regard of each package, for which languages
176 PO files have been submitted to translation coordination, with a
177 translation percentage of at least 50%.
178
179      Ready PO files    be bg ca cs da de el en eo es et fi fr
180                      +----------------------------------------+
181      a2ps            |             [] []             []    [] |
182      ap-utils        |                                        |
183      bash            |                []       [] []       [] |
184      bfd             |                            []       [] |
185      binutils        |                            []       [] |
186      bison           |                []          [] []    [] |
187      clisp           |                                        |
188      clisp           |                []    []    []       [] |
189      clisplow        |                                        |
190      cpio            |             [] []          []       [] |
191      darkstat        |             ()                         |
192      diffutils       |          [] [] []       [] []       [] |
193      enscript        |                []                   [] |
194      error           |                []          []       [] |
195      fetchmail       |       [] () [] []          []       () |
196      fileutils       |             [] []          [] []    [] |
197      findutils       |             [] []       [] [] []    [] |
198      flex            |       []    [] []          []       [] |
199      gas             |                            []       [] |
200      gawk            |                []          []       [] |
201      gcal            |       []                            [] |
202      gcc             |                            []       [] |
203      gettext         |       []    [] []          []       [] |
204      gnupg           |       []       [] []    [] [] []    [] |
205      gprof           |                            []       [] |
206      gpsdrive        |             () ()    ()    ()       () |
207      grep            |    [] []       [] []       [] [] [] [] |
208      gretl           |                            []          |
209      gthumb          |                ()          ()       () |
210      hello           |       []    [] [] []    [] [] [] [] [] |
211      id-utils        |             [] []                   [] |
212      indent          |       []       []       []    []    [] |
213      jpilot          |          () [] []                   [] |
214      jwhois          |                            []       [] |
215      kbd             |                []          []       [] |
216      ld              |                            []       [] |
217      libc            |       [] [] [] [] []       []    [] [] |
218      libiconv        |       []       []       [] []          |
219      lifelines       |                ()                   () |
220      lilypond        |             []                      [] |
221      lingoteach      |                         []          [] |
222      lingoteach_lessons|                ()          ()          |
223      lynx            |       [] [] [] []             []       |
224      m4              |          [] [] [] []                [] |
225      make            |             [] []          []       [] |
226      man-db          |       [] () () []          ()       () |
227      mysecretdiary   |                []          []       [] |
228      nano            |       [] () [] []          []       [] |
229      nano_1_0        |       [] () [] []          []       [] |
230      opcodes         |             []             []       [] |
231      parted          |       []    [] []          []       [] |
232      ptx             |             [] []       [] [] [] [] [] |
233      python          |                                        |
234      recode          |             [] [] []    [] []       [] |
235      sed             |       [] [] [] [] []    [] [] [] [] [] |
236      sh-utils        |                []          [] []    [] |
237      sharutils       |          [] [] [] []       [] []    [] |
238      sketch          |                ()          []       () |
239      soundtracker    |                []          []       [] |
240      sp              |                []                      |
241      tar             |          [] [] []          [] []    [] |
242      texinfo         |          [] [] []       []          [] |
243      textutils       |       []    [] []          []       [] |
244      util-linux      |          [] [] []          [] []    [] |
245      vorbis-tools    |                                     [] |
246      wastesedge      |                                        |
247      wdiff           |       []    [] []          [] []    [] |
248      wget            |    [] [] [] [] [] []       [] [] [] [] |
249                      +----------------------------------------+
250                        be bg ca cs da de el en eo es et fi fr
251                         0  2 19 10 30 44  9  1 12 44 17  6 53
252      
253                        gl he hr hu id it ja ko lv nb nl nn
254                      +-------------------------------------+
255      a2ps            |                ()    ()       []    |
256      ap-utils        |                                     |
257      bash            |          []                         |
258      bfd             |                   []                |
259      binutils        |                   []                |
260      bison           |       []       [] []          []    |
261      clisp           |                                     |
262      clisp           |                               []    |
263      clisplow        |                                     |
264      cpio            | []       []          []       []    |
265      darkstat        |                                     |
266      diffutils       | [] []    [] []    []                |
267      enscript        |       []                      []    |
268      error           |          []                         |
269      fetchmail       |                   []                |
270      fileutils       |          []    [] []                |
271      findutils       | []    [] [] [] [] [] []       []    |
272      flex            |                      []             |
273      gas             |                                     |
274      gawk            |    []                               |
275      gcal            |                                     |
276      gcc             |                   []                |
277      gettext         |                   [] []             |
278      gnupg           | []          [] [] []                |
279      gprof           |             []                      |
280      gpsdrive        |          []    ()             ()    |
281      grep            | [] [] [] [] [] [] []                |
282      gretl           |                                     |
283      gthumb          |                () ()                |
284      hello           | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] |
285      id-utils        |          []                   []    |
286      indent          | []       []       []          []    |
287      jpilot          |                   ()          ()    |
288      jwhois          |          [] []                      |
289      kbd             |                                     |
290      ld              |                                     |
291      libc            | []                [] []    []       |
292      libiconv        | []    [] []                         |
293      lifelines       |                                     |
294      lilypond        |                               []    |
295      lingoteach      |          []                         |
296      lingoteach_lessons|                                     |
297      lynx            |          []    [] []          []    |
298      m4              | []          []    []          []    |
299      make            | [] [] []          [] []       []    |
300      man-db          |                () ()                |
301      mysecretdiary   |             []                      |
302      nano            | []          [] []             []    |
303      nano_1_0        | []          [] []          []    [] |
304      opcodes         |             []                []    |
305      parted          | []                []             [] |
306      ptx             | []       [] []             [] []    |
307      python          |                                     |
308      recode          | [] []          []                   |
309      sed             | [] [] []    [] [] [] []       []    |
310      sh-utils        |                [] []       []       |
311      sharutils       | []                []          []    |
312      sketch          |                ()                   |
313      soundtracker    | []    []                            |
314      sp              |                                     |
315      tar             | []    []    [] [] []       []       |
316      texinfo         |    [] []          []                |
317      textutils       | []                [] []    []       |
318      util-linux      |                () []                |
319      vorbis-tools    |          []                         |
320      wastesedge      |                                     |
321      wdiff           | []       [] []                      |
322      wget            | [] [] [] []       []          []    |
323                      +-------------------------------------+
324                        gl he hr hu id it ja ko lv nb nl nn
325                        23  9 12 19 16 13 26  9  1  7 19  3
326      
327                        no pl pt pt_BR ru sk sl sv tr uk zh_CN zh_TW
328                      +----------------------------------------------+
329      a2ps            | () () ()  []   []    [] [] []                | 10
330      ap-utils        |                               ()             |  0
331      bash            |           []                                 |  6
332      bfd             |                         [] []                |  5
333      binutils        |                         [] []                |  5
334      bison           |           []   []       [] []                | 12
335      clisp           |                                              |  0
336      clisp           |                                              |  5
337      clisplow        |                                              |  0
338      cpio            |    []     []   []       []                   | 12
339      darkstat        |           []            []        ()    ()   |  2
340      diffutils       |    []     []   []       [] []           []   | 17
341      enscript        |           []   []       [] []                |  8
342      error           |                   []       []           []   |  7
343      fetchmail       |    ()     ()               []                |  6
344      fileutils       |                []    [] [] []     []    []   | 14
345      findutils       |    []     []   [] [] [] [] []                | 21
346      flex            |                []       [] []                |  9
347      gas             |                            []                |  3
348      gawk            |                         [] []                |  6
349      gcal            |                         [] []                |  4
350      gcc             |                            []                |  4
351      gettext         |                [] [] [] [] []           []   | 13
352      gnupg           |    []                   [] []                | 14
353      gprof           |                         [] []                |  5
354      gpsdrive        |                   []    []                   |  3
355      grep            |    []     []   []    []    []                | 20
356      gretl           |                                              |  1
357      gthumb          |           ()   ()       []                   |  1
358      hello           | [] []          [] []    [] [] []             | 28
359      id-utils        |           []   []       [] []                |  9
360      indent          |           []   [] []    [] []                | 14
361      jpilot          | ()                      () []           []   |  5
362      jwhois          |           []   ()       () []           []   |  7
363      kbd             |                         [] []                |  5
364      ld              |                         [] []                |  4
365      libc            | [] []     []      []    [] []                | 18
366      libiconv        |           []   [] []    [] []                | 12
367      lifelines       |                         []                   |  1
368      lilypond        |                         []                   |  4
369      lingoteach      |           []            []                   |  5
370      lingoteach_lessons|                                   ()         |  0
371      lynx            |           []   []       [] []                | 13
372      m4              |    []     []   []       []                   | 13
373      make            |    []     []   []       [] []                | 15
374      man-db          |                                              |  3
375      mysecretdiary   |           []            [] []                |  7
376      nano            |    []          []       []    []             | 13
377      nano_1_0        |    []          []       []    []             | 14
378      opcodes         |           []            [] []                |  8
379      parted          |       []  []            [] []                | 12
380      ptx             | [] [] []  []   []       [] []                | 19
381      python          |                                              |  0
382      recode          |    []     []   []    [] [] []                | 15
383      sed             |           []   [] [] [] [] []                | 24
384      sh-utils        |                []          []                |  9
385      sharutils       |                []       [] []           []   | 14
386      sketch          |           []   ()       []                   |  4
387      soundtracker    |                         []                   |  6
388      sp              |                                              |  1
389      tar             | [] []     []      [] [] [] []                | 19
390      texinfo         |                []       []                   | 10
391      textutils       |                []    [] [] []           []   | 14
392      util-linux      |           []            [] []                | 10
393      vorbis-tools    |                         []                   |  3
394      wastesedge      |                                              |  0
395      wdiff           |           []   [] []    [] []                | 14
396      wget            |    []          [] [] [] [] [] []        []   | 24
397                      +----------------------------------------------+
398        37 teams        no pl pt pt_BR ru sk sl sv tr uk zh_CN zh_TW
399        68 domains       4 15  2  28   28 12 10 49 43  4   1     9    609
400
401    Some counters in the preceding matrix are higher than the number of
402 visible blocks let us expect.  This is because a few extra PO files are
403 used for implementing regional variants of languages, or language
404 dialects.
405
406    For a PO file in the matrix above to be effective, the package to
407 which it applies should also have been internationalized and
408 distributed as such by its maintainer.  There might be an observable
409 lag between the mere existence a PO file and its wide availability in a
410 distribution.
411
412    If August 2002 seems to be old, you may fetch a more recent copy of
413 this `ABOUT-NLS' file on most GNU archive sites.  The most up-to-date
414 matrix with full percentage details can be found at
415 `http://www.iro.umontreal.ca/contrib/po/HTML/matrix.html'.
416
417 Using `gettext' in new packages
418 ===============================
419
420    If you are writing a freely available program and want to
421 internationalize it you are welcome to use GNU `gettext' in your
422 package.  Of course you have to respect the GNU Library General Public
423 License which covers the use of the GNU `gettext' library.  This means
424 in particular that even non-free programs can use `libintl' as a shared
425 library, whereas only free software can use `libintl' as a static
426 library or use modified versions of `libintl'.
427
428    Once the sources are changed appropriately and the setup can handle
429 to use of `gettext' the only thing missing are the translations.  The
430 Free Translation Project is also available for packages which are not
431 developed inside the GNU project.  Therefore the information given above
432 applies also for every other Free Software Project.  Contact
433 `translation@iro.umontreal.ca' to make the `.pot' files available to
434 the translation teams.
435