9 years agomm: don't use alloc_bootmem_low() where not strictly needed
Jan Beulich [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:03:06 +0000]
mm: don't use alloc_bootmem_low() where not strictly needed

Since alloc_bootmem() will never return inaccessible (via virtual
addressing) memory anyway, using the ..._low() variant only makes sense
when the physical address range of the allocated memory must fulfill
further constraints, espacially since on 64-bits (or more generally in all
cases where the pools the two variants allocate from are than the full
available range.

Probably the use in alloc_tce_table() could also be eliminated (based on
code inspection of pci-calgary_64.c), but that seems too risky given I
know nothing about that hardware and have no way to test it.

Signed-off-by: Jan Beulich <jbeulich@novell.com>
Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Cc: "H. Peter Anvin" <hpa@zytor.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agomm: replace various uses of num_physpages by totalram_pages
Jan Beulich [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:03:05 +0000]
mm: replace various uses of num_physpages by totalram_pages

Sizing of memory allocations shouldn't depend on the number of physical
pages found in a system, as that generally includes (perhaps a huge amount
of) non-RAM pages.  The amount of what actually is usable as storage
should instead be used as a basis here.

Some of the calculations (i.e.  those not intending to use high memory)
should likely even use (totalram_pages - totalhigh_pages).

Signed-off-by: Jan Beulich <jbeulich@novell.com>
Acked-by: Rusty Russell <rusty@rustcorp.com.au>
Acked-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
Cc: Dave Airlie <airlied@linux.ie>
Cc: Kyle McMartin <kyle@mcmartin.ca>
Cc: Jeremy Fitzhardinge <jeremy@goop.org>
Cc: Pekka Enberg <penberg@cs.helsinki.fi>
Cc: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk>
Cc: "David S. Miller" <davem@davemloft.net>
Cc: Patrick McHardy <kaber@trash.net>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agomemory hotplug: fix updating of num_physpages for hot plugged memory
Jan Beulich [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:03:03 +0000]
memory hotplug: fix updating of num_physpages for hot plugged memory

Sizing of memory allocations shouldn't depend on the number of physical
pages found in a system, as that generally includes (perhaps a huge amount
of) non-RAM pages.  The amount of what actually is usable as storage
should instead be used as a basis here.

In line with that, the memory hotplug code should update num_physpages in
a way that it retains its original (post-boot) meaning; in particular,
decreasing the value should at best be done with great care - this patch
doesn't try to ever decrease this value at all as it doesn't really seem
meaningful to do so.

Signed-off-by: Jan Beulich <jbeulich@novell.com>
Acked-by: Rusty Russell <rusty@rustcorp.com.au>
Cc: Yasunori Goto <y-goto@jp.fujitsu.com>
Cc: Badari Pulavarty <pbadari@us.ibm.com>
Cc: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com>
Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie>
Cc: Dave Hansen <haveblue@us.ibm.com>
Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agopage-allocator: limit the number of MIGRATE_RESERVE pageblocks per zone
Mel Gorman [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:03:02 +0000]
page-allocator: limit the number of MIGRATE_RESERVE pageblocks per zone

After anti-fragmentation was merged, a bug was reported whereby devices
that depended on high-order atomic allocations were failing.  The solution
was to preserve a property in the buddy allocator which tended to keep the
minimum number of free pages in the zone at the lower physical addresses
and contiguous.  To preserve this property, MIGRATE_RESERVE was introduced
and a number of pageblocks at the start of a zone would be marked
"reserve", the number of which depended on min_free_kbytes.

Anti-fragmentation works by avoiding the mixing of page migratetypes
within the same pageblock.  One way of helping this is to increase
min_free_kbytes because it becomes less like that it will be necessary to
place pages of of MIGRATE_RESERVE is unbounded, the free memory is kept
there in large contiguous blocks instead of helping anti-fragmentation as
much as it should.  With the page-allocator tracepoint patches applied, it
was found during anti-fragmentation tests that the number of
fragmentation-related events were far higher than expected even with
min_free_kbytes at higher values.

This patch limits the number of MIGRATE_RESERVE blocks that exist per zone
to two.  For example, with a sufficient min_free_kbytes, 4MB of memory
will be kept aside on an x86-64 and remain more or less free and
contiguous for the systems uptime.  This should be sufficient for devices
depending on high-order atomic allocations while helping fragmentation
control when min_free_kbytes is tuned appropriately.  As side-effect of
this patch is that the reserve variable is converted to int as unsigned
long was the wrong type to use when ensuring that only the required number
of reserve blocks are created.

With the patches applied, fragmentation-related events as measured by the
page allocator tracepoints were significantly reduced when running some
fragmentation stress-tests on systems with min_free_kbytes tuned to a
value appropriate for hugepage allocations at runtime.  On x86, the events
recorded were reduced by 99.8%, on x86-64 by 99.72% and on ppc64 by
99.83%.

Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie>
Cc: <stable@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agomm: document is_page_cache_freeable()
Johannes Weiner [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:03:00 +0000]
mm: document is_page_cache_freeable()

Enlighten the reader of this code about what reference count makes a page
cache page freeable.

Signed-off-by: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org>
Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org>
Reviewed-by: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org>
Reviewed-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agomm: return boolean from page_has_private()
Johannes Weiner [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:02:59 +0000]
mm: return boolean from page_has_private()

Make page_has_private() return a true boolean value and remove the double
negations from the two callsites using it for arithmetic.

Signed-off-by: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org>
Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org>
Reviewed-by: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org>
Reviewed-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agomm: return boolean from page_is_file_cache()
Johannes Weiner [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:02:59 +0000]
mm: return boolean from page_is_file_cache()

page_is_file_cache() has been used for both boolean checks and LRU
arithmetic, which was always a bit weird.

Now that page_lru_base_type() exists for LRU arithmetic, make
page_is_file_cache() a real predicate function and adjust the
boolean-using callsites to drop those pesky double negations.

Signed-off-by: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org>
Reviewed-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agomm: introduce page_lru_base_type()
Johannes Weiner [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:02:58 +0000]
mm: introduce page_lru_base_type()

Instead of abusing page_is_file_cache() for LRU list index arithmetic, add
another helper with a more appropriate name and convert the non-boolean
users of page_is_file_cache() accordingly.

This new helper gives the LRU base type a page is supposed to live on,
inactive anon or inactive file.

[hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk: convert del_page_from_lru() also]
Signed-off-by: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org>
Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
Cc: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com>
Reviewed-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agomm: drop unneeded double negations
Johannes Weiner [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:02:56 +0000]
mm: drop unneeded double negations

Remove double negations where the operand is already boolean.

Signed-off-by: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org>
Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie>
Reviewed-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agomm: remove broken 'kzalloc' mempool
Sage Weil [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:02:56 +0000]
mm: remove broken 'kzalloc' mempool

The kzalloc mempool zeros items when they are initially allocated, but
does not rezero used items that are returned to the pool.  Consequently
mempool_alloc()s may return non-zeroed memory.

Since there are/were only two in-tree users for
mempool_create_kzalloc_pool(), and 'fixing' this in a way that will
re-zero used (but not new) items before first use is non-trivial, just
remove it.

Signed-off-by: Sage Weil <sage@newdream.net>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agomd: avoid use of broken kzalloc mempool
Sage Weil [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:02:55 +0000]
md: avoid use of broken kzalloc mempool

The kzalloc mempool does not re-zero items that have been used and then
returned to the pool.  Manually zero the allocated multipath_bh instead.

Acked-by: Neil Brown <neilb@suse.de>
Signed-off-by: Sage Weil <sage@newdream.net>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agomm: includecheck fix for mm/nommu.c
Jaswinder Singh Rajput [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:02:53 +0000]
mm: includecheck fix for mm/nommu.c

Fix the following 'make includecheck' warning:

  mm/nommu.c: internal.h is included more than once.

Signed-off-by: Jaswinder Singh Rajput <jaswinderrajput@gmail.com>
Cc: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Greg Ungerer <gerg@snapgear.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agomm: includecheck fix for mm/shmem.c
Jaswinder Singh Rajput [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:02:53 +0000]
mm: includecheck fix for mm/shmem.c

Fix the following 'make includecheck' warning:

  mm/shmem.c: linux/vfs.h is included more than once.

Signed-off-by: Jaswinder Singh Rajput <jaswinderrajput@gmail.com>
Cc: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agomm: add_to_swap_cache() does not return -EEXIST
Daisuke Nishimura [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:02:52 +0000]
mm: add_to_swap_cache() does not return -EEXIST

After commit 355cfa73 ("mm: modify swap_map and add SWAP_HAS_CACHE flag"),
only the context which have set SWAP_HAS_CACHE flag by swapcache_prepare()
or get_swap_page() would call add_to_swap_cache().  So add_to_swap_cache()
doesn't return -EEXIST any more.

Even though it doesn't return -EEXIST, it's not good behavior conceptually
to call swapcache_prepare() in the -EEXIST case, because it means clearing
SWAP_HAS_CACHE flag while the entry is on swap cache.

This patch removes redundant codes and comments from callers of it, and
adds VM_BUG_ON() in error path of add_to_swap_cache() and some comments.

Signed-off-by: Daisuke Nishimura <nishimura@mxp.nes.nec.co.jp>
Reviewed-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com>
Cc: Balbir Singh <balbir@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Cc: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk>
Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agomm: add_to_swap_cache() must not sleep
Daisuke Nishimura [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:02:50 +0000]
mm: add_to_swap_cache() must not sleep

After commit 355cfa73 ("mm: modify swap_map and add SWAP_HAS_CACHE flag"),
read_swap_cache_async() will busy-wait while a entry doesn't exist in swap
cache but it has SWAP_HAS_CACHE flag.

Such entries can exist on add/delete path of swap cache.  On add path,
add_to_swap_cache() is called soon after SWAP_HAS_CACHE flag is set, and
on delete path, swapcache_free() will be called (SWAP_HAS_CACHE flag is
cleared) soon after __delete_from_swap_cache() is called.  So, the
busy-wait works well in most cases.

But this mechanism can cause soft lockup if add_to_swap_cache() sleeps and
read_swap_cache_async() tries to swap-in the same entry on the same cpu.

This patch calls radix_tree_preload() before swapcache_prepare() and
divides add_to_swap_cache() into two part: radix_tree_preload() part and
radix_tree_insert() part(define it as __add_to_swap_cache()).

Signed-off-by: Daisuke Nishimura <nishimura@mxp.nes.nec.co.jp>
Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com>
Cc: Balbir Singh <balbir@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Cc: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk>
Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agotracing, documentation: Add a document on the kmem tracepoints
Mel Gorman [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:02:49 +0000]
tracing, documentation: Add a document on the kmem tracepoints

Knowing tracepoints exist is not quite the same as knowing what they
should be used for.  This patch adds a document giving a basic description
of the kmem tracepoints and why they might be useful to a performance
analyst.

Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie>
Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
Reviewed-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
Cc: Larry Woodman <lwoodman@redhat.com>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Li Ming Chun <macli@brc.ubc.ca>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agotracing, documentation: add a document describing how to do some performance analysis...
Mel Gorman [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:02:48 +0000]
tracing, documentation: add a document describing how to do some performance analysis with tracepoints

The documentation for ftrace, events and tracepoints is pretty extensive.
Similarly, the perf PCL tools help files --help are there and the code
simple enough to figure out what much of the switches mean.  However,
pulling the discrete bits and pieces together and translating that into
"how do I solve a problem" requires a fair amount of imagination.

This patch adds a simple document intended to get someone started on the

Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie>
Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
Reviewed-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
Cc: Larry Woodman <lwoodman@redhat.com>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Li Ming Chun <macli@brc.ubc.ca>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agotracing, page-allocator: add a postprocessing script for page-allocator-related ftrac...
Mel Gorman [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:02:47 +0000]
tracing, page-allocator: add a postprocessing script for page-allocator-related ftrace events

This patch adds a simple post-processing script for the
page-allocator-related trace events.  It can be used to give an indication
of who the most allocator-intensive processes are and how often the zone
lock was taken during the tracing period.  Example output looks like

Process                   Pages      Pages      Pages    Pages       PCPU     PCPU     PCPU   Fragment Fragment  MigType Fragment Fragment  Unknown
details                  allocd     allocd      freed    freed      pages   drains  refills   Fallback  Causing  Changed   Severe Moderate
                                under lock     direct  pagevec      drain
swapper-0                     0          0          2        0          0        0        0          0        0        0        0        0        0
Xorg-3770                 10603       5952       3685     6978       5996      194      192          0        0        0        0        0        0
modprobe-21397               51          0          0       86         31        1        0          0        0        0        0        0        0
xchat-5370                  228         93          0        0          0        0        3          0        0        0        0        0        0
awesome-4317                 32         32          0        0          0        0       32          0        0        0        0        0        0
thinkfan-3863                 2          0          1        1          0        0        0          0        0        0        0        0        0
hald-addon-stor-3935          2          0          0        0          0        0        0          0        0        0        0        0        0
akregator-4506                1          1          0        0          0        0        1          0        0        0        0        0        0
xmms-14888                    0          0          1        0          0        0        0          0        0        0        0        0        0
khelper-12                    1          0          0        0          0        0        0          0        0        0        0        0        0

Optionally, the output can include information on the parent or aggregate
based on process name instead of aggregating based on each pid. Example output
including parent information and stripped out the PID looks something like;

Process                        Pages      Pages      Pages    Pages       PCPU     PCPU     PCPU   Fragment Fragment  MigType Fragment Fragment  Unknown
details                       allocd     allocd      freed    freed      pages   drains  refills   Fallback  Causing  Changed   Severe Moderate
                                     under lock     direct  pagevec      drain
gdm-3756 :: Xorg-3770           3796       2976         99     3813       3224      104       98          0        0        0        0        0        0
init-1 :: hald-3892                1          0          0        0          0        0        0          0        0        0        0        0        0
git-21447 :: editor-21448          4          0          4        0          0        0        0          0        0        0        0        0        0

This says that Xorg allocated 3796 pages and it's parent process is gdm
with a PID of 3756;

The postprocessor parses the text output of tracing.  While there is a
binary format, the expectation is that the binary output can be readily
translated into text and post-processed offline.  Obviously if the text
format changes, the parser will break but the regular expression parser is
fairly rudimentary so should be readily adjustable.

Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie>
Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
Reviewed-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
Cc: Larry Woodman <lwoodman@redhat.com>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Li Ming Chun <macli@brc.ubc.ca>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agotracing, page-allocator: add trace event for page traffic related to the buddy lists
Mel Gorman [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:02:44 +0000]
tracing, page-allocator: add trace event for page traffic related to the buddy lists

The page allocation trace event reports that a page was successfully
allocated but it does not specify where it came from.  When analysing
performance, it can be important to distinguish between pages coming from
the per-cpu allocator and pages coming from the buddy lists as the latter
requires the zone lock to the taken and more data structures to be
examined.

This patch adds a trace event for __rmqueue reporting when a page is being
allocated from the buddy lists.  It distinguishes between being called to
refill the per-cpu lists or whether it is a high-order allocation.
Similarly, this patch adds an event to catch when the PCP lists are being
drained a little and pages are going back to the buddy lists.

This is trickier to draw conclusions from but high activity on those
events could explain why there were a large number of cache misses on a
page-allocator-intensive workload.  The coalescing and splitting of
buddies involves a lot of writing of page metadata and cache line bounces
not to mention the acquisition of an interrupt-safe lock necessary to
enter this path.

[akpm@linux-foundation.org: fix build]
Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie>
Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
Reviewed-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
Cc: Larry Woodman <lwoodman@redhat.com>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Li Ming Chun <macli@brc.ubc.ca>
Reviewed-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agotracing, page-allocator: add trace events for anti-fragmentation falling back to...
Mel Gorman [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:02:42 +0000]
tracing, page-allocator: add trace events for anti-fragmentation falling back to other migratetypes

Fragmentation avoidance depends on being able to use free pages from lists
of the appropriate migrate type.  In the event this is not possible,
__rmqueue_fallback() selects a different list and in some circumstances
change the migratetype of the pageblock.  Simplistically, the more times
this event occurs, the more likely that fragmentation will be a problem
later for hugepage allocation at least but there are other considerations
such as the order of page being split to satisfy the allocation.

This patch adds a trace event for __rmqueue_fallback() that reports what
page is being used for the fallback, the orders of relevant pages, the
desired migratetype and the migratetype of the lists being used, whether
the pageblock changed type and whether this event is important with
respect to fragmentation avoidance or not.  This information can be used
to help analyse fragmentation avoidance and help decide whether
min_free_kbytes should be increased or not.

Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie>
Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
Reviewed-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
Cc: Larry Woodman <lwoodman@redhat.com>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Li Ming Chun <macli@brc.ubc.ca>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agotracing, page-allocator: add trace events for page allocation and page freeing
Mel Gorman [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:02:41 +0000]
tracing, page-allocator: add trace events for page allocation and page freeing

This patch adds trace events for the allocation and freeing of pages,
including the freeing of pagevecs.  Using the events, it will be known
what struct page and pfns are being allocated and freed and what the call
site was in many cases.

The page alloc tracepoints be used as an indicator as to whether the
workload was heavily dependant on the page allocator or not.  You can make
a guess based on vmstat but you can't get a per-process breakdown.
Depending on the call path, the call_site for page allocation may be
__get_free_pages() instead of a useful callsite.  Instead of passing down
a return address similar to slab debugging, the user should enable the
stacktrace and seg-addr options to get a proper stack trace.

The pagevec free tracepoint has a different usecase.  It can be used to
get a idea of how many pages are being dumped off the LRU and whether it
is kswapd doing the work or a process doing direct reclaim.

Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie>
Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
Reviewed-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
Cc: Larry Woodman <lwoodman@redhat.com>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Li Ming Chun <macli@brc.ubc.ca>
Reviewed-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agopage-allocator: remove dead function free_cold_page()
Mel Gorman [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:02:39 +0000]
page-allocator: remove dead function free_cold_page()

The function free_cold_page() has no callers so delete it.

Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agoarches: drop superfluous casts in nr_free_pages() callers
Geert Uytterhoeven [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:02:36 +0000]
arches: drop superfluous casts in nr_free_pages() callers

Commit 96177299416dbccb73b54e6b344260154a445375 ("Drop free_pages()")
modified nr_free_pages() to return 'unsigned long' instead of 'unsigned
int'.  This made the casts to 'unsigned long' in most callers superfluous,
so remove them.

[akpm@linux-foundation.org: coding-style fixes]
Signed-off-by: Geert Uytterhoeven <Geert.Uytterhoeven@sonycom.com>
Reviewed-by: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org>
Acked-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
Acked-by: Russell King <rmk+kernel@arm.linux.org.uk>
Acked-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
Acked-by: Kyle McMartin <kyle@mcmartin.ca>
Acked-by: WANG Cong <xiyou.wangcong@gmail.com>
Cc: Richard Henderson <rth@twiddle.net>
Cc: Ivan Kokshaysky <ink@jurassic.park.msu.ru>
Cc: Haavard Skinnemoen <hskinnemoen@atmel.com>
Cc: Mikael Starvik <starvik@axis.com>
Cc: "Luck, Tony" <tony.luck@intel.com>
Cc: Hirokazu Takata <takata@linux-m32r.org>
Cc: Ralf Baechle <ralf@linux-mips.org>
Cc: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Benjamin Herrenschmidt <benh@kernel.crashing.org>
Cc: Martin Schwidefsky <schwidefsky@de.ibm.com>
Cc: Paul Mundt <lethal@linux-sh.org>
Cc: Chris Zankel <zankel@tensilica.com>
Cc: Michal Simek <monstr@monstr.eu>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agokcore: /proc/kcore should use vread
KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:02:35 +0000]
kcore: /proc/kcore should use vread

/proc/kcore has its own routine to access vmallc area.  It can be replaced
with vread().  And by this, /proc/kcore can do safe access to vmalloc
area.

Signed-off-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com>
Cc: WANG Cong <xiyou.wangcong@gmail.com>
Cc: Mike Smith <scgtrp@gmail.com>
Cc: Nick Piggin <nickpiggin@yahoo.com.au>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agokcore: fix vread/vwrite to be aware of holes
KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:02:34 +0000]
kcore: fix vread/vwrite to be aware of holes

vread/vwrite access vmalloc area without checking there is a page or not.
In most case, this works well.

In old ages, the caller of get_vm_ara() is only IOREMAP and there is no
memory hole within vm_struct's [addr...addr + size - PAGE_SIZE] (
-PAGE_SIZE is for a guard page.)

After per-cpu-alloc patch, it uses get_vm_area() for reserve continuous
virtual address but remap _later_.  There tend to be a hole in valid
vmalloc area in vm_struct lists.  Then, skip the hole (not mapped page) is
necessary.  This patch updates vread/vwrite() for avoiding memory hole.

Routines which access vmalloc area without knowing for which addr is used
are
  - /proc/kcore
  - /dev/kmem

kcore checks IOREMAP, /dev/kmem doesn't.  After this patch, IOREMAP is
checked and /dev/kmem will avoid to read/write it.  Fixes to /proc/kcore
will be in the next patch in series.

Signed-off-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com>
Cc: WANG Cong <xiyou.wangcong@gmail.com>
Cc: Mike Smith <scgtrp@gmail.com>
Cc: Nick Piggin <nickpiggin@yahoo.com.au>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agovmalloc: unmap vmalloc area after hiding it
KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:02:32 +0000]
vmalloc: unmap vmalloc area after hiding it

vmap area should be purged after vm_struct is removed from the list
because vread/vwrite etc...believes the range is valid while it's on
vm_struct list.

Signed-off-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com>
Reviewed-by: WANG Cong <xiyou.wangcong@gmail.com>
Cc: Mike Smith <scgtrp@gmail.com>
Cc: Nick Piggin <nickpiggin@yahoo.com.au>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agopage-allocator: change migratetype for all pageblocks within a high-order page during...
Mel Gorman [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:02:31 +0000]
page-allocator: change migratetype for all pageblocks within a high-order page during __rmqueue_fallback

When there are no pages of a target migratetype free, the page allocator
selects a high-order block of another migratetype to allocate from.  When
the order of the page taken is greater than pageblock_order, all
pageblocks within that high-order page should change migratetype so that
pages are later freed to the correct free-lists.

The current behaviour is that pageblocks change migratetype if the order
being split matches the pageblock_order.  When pageblock_order <
MAX_ORDER-1, ownership is not changing correct and pages are being later
freed to the incorrect list and this impacts fragmentation avoidance.

This patch changes all pageblocks within the high-order page being split
to the correct migratetype.  Without the patch, allocation success rates
for hugepages under stress were about 59% of physical memory on x86-64.
With the patch applied, this goes up to 65%.

Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie>
Cc: Andy Whitcroft <apw@shadowen.org>
Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com>
Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agomm: kmem_cache_create(): make it easier to catch NULL cache names
Benjamin Herrenschmidt [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:02:30 +0000]
mm: kmem_cache_create(): make it easier to catch NULL cache names

Right now, if you inadvertently pass NULL to kmem_cache_create() at boot
time, it crashes much later after boot somewhere deep inside sysfs which
makes it very non obvious to figure out what's going on.

Signed-off-by: Benjamin Herrenschmidt <benh@kernel.crashing.org>
Cc: Pekka Enberg <penberg@cs.helsinki.fi>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agopagemap clear_refs: modify to specify anon or mapped vma clearing
Moussa A. Ba [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:02:29 +0000]
pagemap clear_refs: modify to specify anon or mapped vma clearing

The patch makes the clear_refs more versatile in adding the option to
select anonymous pages or file backed pages for clearing.  This addition
has a measurable impact on user space application performance as it
decreases the number of pagewalks in scenarios where one is only
interested in a specific type of page (anonymous or file mapped).

The patch adds anonymous and file backed filters to the clear_refs interface.

echo 1 > /proc/PID/clear_refs resets the bits on all pages
echo 2 > /proc/PID/clear_refs resets the bits on anonymous pages only
echo 3 > /proc/PID/clear_refs resets the bits on file backed pages only

Any other value is ignored

Signed-off-by: Moussa A. Ba <moussa.a.ba@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Jared E. Hulbert <jaredeh@gmail.com>
Acked-by: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agoksm: mremap use err from ksm_madvise
Hugh Dickins [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:02:28 +0000]
ksm: mremap use err from ksm_madvise

mremap move's use of ksm_madvise() was assuming -ENOMEM on failure,
because ksm_madvise used to say -EAGAIN for that; but ksm_madvise now says
-ENOMEM (letting madvise convert that to -EAGAIN), and can also say
-ERESTARTSYS when signalled: so pass the error from ksm_madvise.

Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk>
Acked-by: Izik Eidus <ieidus@redhat.com>
Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agoksm: unmerge is an origin of OOMs
Hugh Dickins [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:02:27 +0000]
ksm: unmerge is an origin of OOMs

Just as the swapoff system call allocates many pages of RAM to various
processes, perhaps triggering OOM, so "echo 2 >/sys/kernel/mm/ksm/run"
(unmerge) is liable to allocate many pages of RAM to various processes,
perhaps triggering OOM; and each is normally run from a modest admin
process (swapoff or shell), easily repeated until it succeeds.

So treat unmerge_and_remove_all_rmap_items() in the same way that we treat
try_to_unuse(): generalize PF_SWAPOFF to PF_OOM_ORIGIN, and bracket both
with that, to ask the OOM killer to kill them first, to prevent them from
spawning more and more OOM kills.

Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk>
Acked-by: Izik Eidus <ieidus@redhat.com>
Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agoksm: clean up obsolete references
Hugh Dickins [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:02:26 +0000]
ksm: clean up obsolete references

A few cleanups, given the munlock fix: the comment on ksm_test_exit() no
longer applies, and it can be made private to ksm.c; there's no more
reference to mmu_gather or tlb.h, and mmap.c doesn't need ksm.h.

Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk>
Acked-by: Izik Eidus <ieidus@redhat.com>
Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agoksm: remove VM_MERGEABLE_FLAGS
Hugh Dickins [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:02:25 +0000]
ksm: remove VM_MERGEABLE_FLAGS

KSM originally stood for Kernel Shared Memory: but the kernel has long
supported shared memory, and VM_SHARED and VM_MAYSHARE vmas, and KSM is
something else.  So we switched to saying "merge" instead of "share".

But Chris Wright points out that this is confusing where mmap.c merges
adjacent vmas: most especially in the name VM_MERGEABLE_FLAGS, used by
is_mergeable_vma() to let vmas be merged despite flags being different.

Call it VMA_MERGE_DESPITE_FLAGS?  Perhaps, but at present it consists
only of VM_CAN_NONLINEAR: so for now it's clearer on all sides to use
that directly, with a comment on it in is_mergeable_vma().

Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk>
Acked-by: Izik Eidus <ieidus@redhat.com>
Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agoksm: add some documentation
Hugh Dickins [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:02:24 +0000]
ksm: add some documentation

Add Documentation/vm/ksm.txt: how to use the Kernel Samepage Merging feature

Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk>
Cc: Michael Kerrisk <mtk.manpages@googlemail.com>
Cc: Randy Dunlap <randy.dunlap@oracle.com>
Acked-by: Izik Eidus <ieidus@redhat.com>
Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agoksm: sysfs and defaults
Hugh Dickins [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:02:23 +0000]
ksm: sysfs and defaults

At present KSM is just a waste of space if you don't have CONFIG_SYSFS=y
to provide the /sys/kernel/mm/ksm files to tune and activate it.

Make KSM depend on SYSFS?  Could do, but it might be better to provide
some defaults so that KSM works out-of-the-box, ready for testers to
madvise MADV_MERGEABLE, even without SYSFS.

Though anyone serious is likely to want to retune the numbers to their
taste once they have experience; and whether these settings ever reach
2.6.32 can be discussed along the way.

Save 1kB from tiny kernels by #ifdef'ing the SYSFS side of it.

Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk>
Acked-by: Izik Eidus <ieidus@redhat.com>
Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agoksm: fix deadlock with munlock in exit_mmap
Andrea Arcangeli [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:02:22 +0000]
ksm: fix deadlock with munlock in exit_mmap

Rawhide users have reported hang at startup when cryptsetup is run: the
same problem can be simply reproduced by running a program int main() {
mlockall(MCL_CURRENT | MCL_FUTURE); return 0; }

The problem is that exit_mmap() applies munlock_vma_pages_all() to
clean up VM_LOCKED areas, and its current implementation (stupidly)
tries to fault in absent pages, for example where PROT_NONE prevented
them being faulted in when mlocking.  Whereas the "ksm: fix oom
deadlock" patch, knowing there's a race by which KSM might try to fault
in pages after exit_mmap() had finally zapped the range, backs out of
such faults doing nothing when its ksm_test_exit() notices mm_users 0.

So revert that part of "ksm: fix oom deadlock" which moved the
ksm_exit() call from before exit_mmap() to the middle of exit_mmap();
and remove those ksm_test_exit() checks from the page fault paths, so
allowing the munlocking to proceed without interference.

ksm_exit, if there are rmap_items still chained on this mm slot, takes
mmap_sem write side: so preventing KSM from working on an mm while
exit_mmap runs.  And KSM will bail out as soon as it notices that
mm_users is already zero, thanks to its internal ksm_test_exit checks.
So that when a task is killed by OOM killer or the user, KSM will not
indefinitely prevent it from running exit_mmap to release its memory.

This does break a part of what "ksm: fix oom deadlock" was trying to
achieve.  When unmerging KSM (echo 2 >/sys/kernel/mm/ksm), and even
when ksmd itself has to cancel a KSM page, it is possible that the
first OOM-kill victim would be the KSM process being faulted: then its
memory won't be freed until a second victim has been selected (freeing
memory for the unmerging fault to complete).

But the OOM killer is already liable to kill a second victim once the
intended victim's p->mm goes to NULL: so there's not much point in
rejecting this KSM patch before fixing that OOM behaviour.  It is very
much more important to allow KSM users to boot up, than to haggle over
an unlikely and poorly supported OOM case.

We also intend to fix munlocking to not fault pages: at which point
this patch _could_ be reverted; though that would be controversial, so
we hope to find a better solution.

Signed-off-by: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Justin M. Forbes <jforbes@redhat.com>
Acked-for-now-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk>
Cc: Izik Eidus <ieidus@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agoksm: fix oom deadlock
Hugh Dickins [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:02:20 +0000]
ksm: fix oom deadlock

There's a now-obvious deadlock in KSM's out-of-memory handling:
imagine ksmd or KSM_RUN_UNMERGE handling, holding ksm_thread_mutex,
trying to allocate a page to break KSM in an mm which becomes the
OOM victim (quite likely in the unmerge case): it's killed and goes
to exit, and hangs there waiting to acquire ksm_thread_mutex.

Clearly we must not require ksm_thread_mutex in __ksm_exit, simple
though that made everything else: perhaps use mmap_sem somehow?
And part of the answer lies in the comments on unmerge_ksm_pages:
__ksm_exit should also leave all the rmap_item removal to ksmd.

But there's a fundamental problem, that KSM relies upon mmap_sem to
guarantee the consistency of the mm it's dealing with, yet exit_mmap
tears down an mm without taking mmap_sem.  And bumping mm_users won't
help at all, that just ensures that the pages the OOM killer assumes
are on their way to being freed will not be freed.

The best answer seems to be, to move the ksm_exit callout from just
before exit_mmap, to the middle of exit_mmap: after the mm's pages
have been freed (if the mmu_gather is flushed), but before its page
tables and vma structures have been freed; and down_write,up_write
mmap_sem there to serialize with KSM's own reliance on mmap_sem.

But KSM then needs to be careful, whenever it downs mmap_sem, to
check that the mm is not already exiting: there's a danger of using
find_vma on a layout that's being torn apart, or writing into page
tables which have been freed for reuse; and even do_anonymous_page
and __do_fault need to check they're not being called by break_ksm
to reinstate a pte after zap_pte_range has zapped that page table.

Though it might be clearer to add an exiting flag, set while holding
mmap_sem in __ksm_exit, that wouldn't cover the issue of reinstating
a zapped pte.  All we need is to check whether mm_users is 0 - but
must remember that ksmd may detect that before __ksm_exit is reached.
So, ksm_test_exit(mm) added to comment such checks on mm->mm_users.

__ksm_exit now has to leave clearing up the rmap_items to ksmd,
that needs ksm_thread_mutex; but shift the exiting mm just after the
ksm_scan cursor so that it will soon be dealt with.  __ksm_enter raise
mm_count to hold the mm_struct, ksmd's exit processing (exactly like
its processing when it finds all VM_MERGEABLEs unmapped) mmdrop it,
similar procedure for KSM_RUN_UNMERGE (which has stopped ksmd).

But also give __ksm_exit a fast path: when there's no complication
(no rmap_items attached to mm and it's not at the ksm_scan cursor),
it can safely do all the exiting work itself.  This is not just an
optimization: when ksmd is not running, the raised mm_count would
otherwise leak mm_structs.

Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk>
Acked-by: Izik Eidus <ieidus@redhat.com>
Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agoksm: distribute remove_mm_from_lists
Hugh Dickins [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:02:17 +0000]
ksm: distribute remove_mm_from_lists

Do some housekeeping in ksm.c, to help make the next patch easier
to understand: remove the function remove_mm_from_lists, distributing
its code to its callsites scan_get_next_rmap_item and __ksm_exit.

That turns out to be a win in scan_get_next_rmap_item: move its
remove_trailing_rmap_items and cursor advancement up, and it becomes
simpler than before.  __ksm_exit becomes messier, but will change
again; and moving its remove_trailing_rmap_items up lets us strengthen
the unstable tree item's age condition in remove_rmap_item_from_tree.

Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk>
Acked-by: Izik Eidus <ieidus@redhat.com>
Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agoksm: fix endless loop on oom
Hugh Dickins [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:02:16 +0000]
ksm: fix endless loop on oom

break_ksm has been looping endlessly ignoring VM_FAULT_OOM: that should
only be a problem for ksmd when a memory control group imposes limits
(normally the OOM killer will kill others with an mm until it succeeds);
but in general (especially for MADV_UNMERGEABLE and KSM_RUN_UNMERGE) we
do need to route the error (or kill) back to the caller (or sighandling).

Test signal_pending in unmerge_ksm_pages, which could be a lengthy
procedure if it has to spill into swap: returning -ERESTARTSYS so that
trivial signals will restart but fatals will terminate (is that right?
we do different things in different places in mm, none exactly this).

unmerge_and_remove_all_rmap_items was forgetting to lock when going
down the mm_list: fix that.  Whether it's successful or not, reset
ksm_scan cursor to head; but only if it's successful, reset seqnr
(shown in full_scans) - page counts will have gone down to zero.

This patch leaves a significant OOM deadlock, but it's a good step
on the way, and that deadlock is fixed in a subsequent patch.

Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk>
Acked-by: Izik Eidus <ieidus@redhat.com>
Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agoksm: five little cleanups
Hugh Dickins [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:02:15 +0000]
ksm: five little cleanups

1. We don't use __break_cow entry point now: merge it into break_cow.
2. remove_all_slot_rmap_items is just a special case of
   remove_trailing_rmap_items: use the latter instead.
3. Extend comment on unmerge_ksm_pages and rmap_items.
4. try_to_merge_two_pages should use try_to_merge_with_ksm_page
   instead of duplicating its code; and so swap them around.
5. Comment on cmp_and_merge_page described last year's: update it.

Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk>
Acked-by: Izik Eidus <ieidus@redhat.com>
Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agoksm: keep quiet while list empty
Hugh Dickins [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:02:14 +0000]
ksm: keep quiet while list empty

ksm_scan_thread already sleeps in wait_event_interruptible until setting
ksm_run activates it; but if there's nothing on its list to look at, i.e.
nobody has yet said madvise MADV_MERGEABLE, it's a shame to be clocking
up system time and full_scans: ksmd_should_run added to check that too.

And move the mutex_lock out around it: the new counts showed that when
ksm_run is stopped, a little work often got done afterwards, because it
had been read before taking the mutex.

Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk>
Acked-by: Izik Eidus <ieidus@redhat.com>
Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agoksm: break cow once unshared
Hugh Dickins [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:02:12 +0000]
ksm: break cow once unshared

We kept agreeing not to bother about the unswappable shared KSM pages
which later become unshared by others: observation suggests they're not
a significant proportion.  But they are disadvantageous, and it is easier
to break COW to replace them by swappable pages, than offer statistics
to show that they don't matter; then we can stop worrying about them.

Doing this in ksm_do_scan, they don't go through cmp_and_merge_page on
this pass: give them a good chance of getting into the unstable tree
on the next pass, or back into the stable, by computing checksum now.

Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk>
Acked-by: Izik Eidus <ieidus@redhat.com>
Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agoksm: pages_unshared and pages_volatile
Hugh Dickins [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:02:11 +0000]
ksm: pages_unshared and pages_volatile

The pages_shared and pages_sharing counts give a good picture of how
successful KSM is at sharing; but no clue to how much wasted work it's
doing to get there.  Add pages_unshared (count of unique pages waiting
in the unstable tree, hoping to find a mate) and pages_volatile.

pages_volatile is harder to define.  It includes those pages changing
too fast to get into the unstable tree, but also whatever other edge
conditions prevent a page getting into the trees: a high value may
deserve investigation.  Don't try to calculate it from the various
conditions: it's the total of rmap_items less those accounted for.

Also show full_scans: the number of completed scans of everything
registered in the mm list.

The locking for all these counts is simply ksm_thread_mutex.

Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk>
Acked-by: Izik Eidus <ieidus@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agoksm: move pages_sharing updates
Hugh Dickins [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:02:10 +0000]
ksm: move pages_sharing updates

The pages_shared count is incremented and decremented when adding a node
to and removing a node from the stable tree: easy to understand.  But the
pages_sharing count was hard to follow, being adjusted in various places:
increment and decrement it when adding to and removing from the stable tree.

And the pages_sharing variable used to include the pages_shared, then those
were subtracted when shown in the pages_sharing sysfs file: now keep it as
an exclusive count of leaves hanging off the stable tree nodes, throughout.

Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk>
Acked-by: Izik Eidus <ieidus@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agoksm: rename kernel_pages_allocated
Hugh Dickins [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:02:09 +0000]
ksm: rename kernel_pages_allocated

We're not implementing swapping of KSM pages in its first release;
but when that follows, "kernel_pages_allocated" will be a very poor
name for the sysfs file showing number of nodes in the stable tree:
rename that to "pages_shared" throughout.

But we already have a "pages_shared", counting those page slots
sharing the shared pages: first rename that to... "pages_sharing".

What will become of "max_kernel_pages" when the pages shared can
be swapped?  I guess it will just be removed, so keep that name.

Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk>
Acked-by: Izik Eidus <ieidus@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agoksm: change ksm nice level to be 5
Izik Eidus [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:02:07 +0000]
ksm: change ksm nice level to be 5

ksm should try not to disturb other tasks as much as possible.

Signed-off-by: Izik Eidus <ieidus@redhat.com>
Cc: Chris Wright <chrisw@redhat.com>
Cc: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk>
Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com>
Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
Cc: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com>
Cc: Balbir Singh <balbir@in.ibm.com>
Cc: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk>
Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com>
Cc: Lee Schermerhorn <lee.schermerhorn@hp.com>
Cc: Avi Kivity <avi@redhat.com>
Cc: Nick Piggin <nickpiggin@yahoo.com.au>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agoksm: change copyright message
Izik Eidus [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:02:06 +0000]
ksm: change copyright message

Adding Hugh Dickins into the authors list.

Signed-off-by: Izik Eidus <ieidus@redhat.com>
Cc: Chris Wright <chrisw@redhat.com>
Cc: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk>
Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com>
Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
Cc: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com>
Cc: Balbir Singh <balbir@in.ibm.com>
Cc: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk>
Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com>
Cc: Lee Schermerhorn <lee.schermerhorn@hp.com>
Cc: Avi Kivity <avi@redhat.com>
Cc: Nick Piggin <nickpiggin@yahoo.com.au>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agoksm: prevent mremap move poisoning
Hugh Dickins [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:02:05 +0000]
ksm: prevent mremap move poisoning

KSM's scan allows for user pages to be COWed or unmapped at any time,
without requiring any notification.  But its stable tree does assume that
when it finds a KSM page where it placed a KSM page, then it is the same
KSM page that it placed there.

mremap move could break that assumption: if an area containing a KSM page
was unmapped, then an area containing a different KSM page was moved with
mremap into the place of the original, before KSM's scan came around to
notice.  That could then poison a node of the stable tree, so that memcmps
would "lie" and upset the ordering of the tree.

Probably noone will ever need mremap move on a VM_MERGEABLE area; except
that prohibiting it would make trouble for schemes in which we try making
everything VM_MERGEABLE e.g.  for testing: an mremap which normally works
would then fail mysteriously.

There's no need to go to any trouble, such as re-sorting KSM's list of
rmap_items to match the new layout: simply unmerge the area to COW all its
KSM pages before moving, but leave VM_MERGEABLE on so that they're
remerged later.

Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk>
Signed-off-by: Chris Wright <chrisw@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Izik Eidus <ieidus@redhat.com>
Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com>
Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
Cc: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com>
Cc: Balbir Singh <balbir@in.ibm.com>
Cc: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk>
Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com>
Cc: Lee Schermerhorn <lee.schermerhorn@hp.com>
Cc: Avi Kivity <avi@redhat.com>
Cc: Nick Piggin <nickpiggin@yahoo.com.au>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agoksm: Kernel SamePage Merging
Izik Eidus [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:02:03 +0000]
ksm: Kernel SamePage Merging

Ksm is code that allows merging of identical pages between one or more
applications, in a way invisible to the applications that use it.  Pages
that are merged are marked as read-only, then COWed when any application
tries to change them.

Whereas fork() allows sharing anonymous pages between parent and child,
ksm can share anonymous pages between unrelated processes.

Ksm works by walking over the memory pages of the applications it scans,
in order to find identical pages.  It uses two sorted data structures,
called the stable and unstable trees, to locate identical pages in an
effective way.

When ksm finds two identical pages, it marks them as readonly and merges
them into a single page.  After the pages have been marked as readonly and
merged into one, Linux treats them as normal copy-on-write pages, copying
to a fresh anonymous page if write access is required later.

Ksm scans and merges anonymous pages only in those memory areas that have
been registered with it by madvise(addr, length, MADV_MERGEABLE).

The ksm scanner is controlled by sysfs files in /sys/kernel/mm/ksm/:

max_kernel_pages - the maximum number of unswappable kernel pages
                   which may be allocated by ksm (0 for unlimited).

kernel_pages_allocated - how many ksm pages are currently allocated,
                         sharing identical content between different
                         processes (pages unswappable in this release).

pages_shared - how many pages have been saved by sharing with ksm pages
               (kernel_pages_allocated being excluded from this count).

pages_to_scan - how many pages ksm should scan before sleeping.

sleep_millisecs - how many milliseconds ksm should sleep between scans.

run - write 0 to disable ksm, read 0 while ksm is disabled (default),
      write 1 to run ksm, read 1 while ksm is running,
      write 2 to disable ksm and unmerge all its pages.

Includes contributions by Andrea Arcangeli Chris Wright and Hugh Dickins.

[hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk: fix rare page leak]
Signed-off-by: Izik Eidus <ieidus@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk>
Signed-off-by: Chris Wright <chrisw@redhat.com>
Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com>
Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
Cc: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com>
Cc: Balbir Singh <balbir@in.ibm.com>
Cc: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk>
Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com>
Cc: Lee Schermerhorn <lee.schermerhorn@hp.com>
Cc: Avi Kivity <avi@redhat.com>
Cc: Nick Piggin <nickpiggin@yahoo.com.au>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agoksm: identify PageKsm pages
Hugh Dickins [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:02:01 +0000]
ksm: identify PageKsm pages

KSM will need to identify its kernel merged pages unambiguously, and
/proc/kpageflags will probably like to do so too.

Since KSM will only be substituting anonymous pages, statistics are best
preserved by making a PageKsm page a special PageAnon page: one with no
anon_vma.

But KSM then needs its own page_add_ksm_rmap() - keep it in ksm.h near
PageKsm; and do_wp_page() must COW them, unlike singly mapped PageAnons.

Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk>
Signed-off-by: Chris Wright <chrisw@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Izik Eidus <ieidus@redhat.com>
Cc: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com>
Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com>
Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
Cc: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com>
Cc: Balbir Singh <balbir@in.ibm.com>
Cc: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk>
Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com>
Cc: Lee Schermerhorn <lee.schermerhorn@hp.com>
Cc: Avi Kivity <avi@redhat.com>
Cc: Nick Piggin <nickpiggin@yahoo.com.au>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agoksm: no debug in page_dup_rmap()
Hugh Dickins [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:01:59 +0000]
ksm: no debug in page_dup_rmap()

page_dup_rmap(), used on each mapped page when forking, was originally
just an inline atomic_inc of mapcount.  2.6.22 added CONFIG_DEBUG_VM
out-of-line checks to it, which would need to be ever-so-slightly
complicated to allow for the PageKsm() we're about to define.

But I think these checks never caught anything.  And if it's coding errors
we're worried about, such checks should be in page_remove_rmap() too, not
just when forking; whereas if it's pagetable corruption we're worried
about, then they shouldn't be limited to CONFIG_DEBUG_VM.

Oh, just revert page_dup_rmap() to an inline atomic_inc of mapcount.

Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk>
Signed-off-by: Chris Wright <chrisw@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Izik Eidus <ieidus@redhat.com>
Cc: Nick Piggin <npiggin@suse.de>
Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com>
Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
Cc: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com>
Cc: Balbir Singh <balbir@in.ibm.com>
Cc: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk>
Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com>
Cc: Lee Schermerhorn <lee.schermerhorn@hp.com>
Cc: Avi Kivity <avi@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agoksm: the mm interface to ksm
Hugh Dickins [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:01:57 +0000]
ksm: the mm interface to ksm

This patch presents the mm interface to a dummy version of ksm.c, for
better scrutiny of that interface: the real ksm.c follows later.

When CONFIG_KSM is not set, madvise(2) reject MADV_MERGEABLE and
MADV_UNMERGEABLE with EINVAL, since that seems more helpful than
pretending that they can be serviced.  But when CONFIG_KSM=y, accept them
even if KSM is not currently running, and even on areas which KSM will not
touch (e.g.  hugetlb or shared file or special driver mappings).

Like other madvices, report ENOMEM despite success if any area in the
range is unmapped, and use EAGAIN to report out of memory.

Define vma flag VM_MERGEABLE to identify an area on which KSM may try
merging pages: leave it to ksm_madvise() to decide whether to set it.
Define mm flag MMF_VM_MERGEABLE to identify an mm which might contain
VM_MERGEABLE areas, to minimize callouts when forking or exiting.

Based upon earlier patches by Chris Wright and Izik Eidus.

Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk>
Signed-off-by: Chris Wright <chrisw@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Izik Eidus <ieidus@redhat.com>
Cc: Michael Kerrisk <mtk.manpages@gmail.com>
Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com>
Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
Cc: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com>
Cc: Balbir Singh <balbir@in.ibm.com>
Cc: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk>
Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com>
Cc: Lee Schermerhorn <lee.schermerhorn@hp.com>
Cc: Avi Kivity <avi@redhat.com>
Cc: Nick Piggin <nickpiggin@yahoo.com.au>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agoksm: define MADV_MERGEABLE and MADV_UNMERGEABLE
Hugh Dickins [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:01:53 +0000]
ksm: define MADV_MERGEABLE and MADV_UNMERGEABLE

The out-of-tree KSM used ioctls on fds cloned from /dev/ksm to register a
memory area for merging: we prefer now to use an madvise(2) interface.

This patch just defines MADV_MERGEABLE (to tell KSM it may merge pages in
this area found identical to pages in other mergeable areas) and
MADV_UNMERGEABLE (to undo that).

Most architectures use asm-generic, but alpha, mips, parisc, xtensa need
their own definitions: included here for mmotm convenience, but we'll
probably want to split this and feed pieces to arch maintainers.

Based upon earlier patches by Chris Wright and Izik Eidus.

Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk>
Signed-off-by: Chris Wright <chrisw@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Izik Eidus <ieidus@redhat.com>
Cc: Michael Kerrisk <mtk.manpages@gmail.com>
Cc: Richard Henderson <rth@twiddle.net>
Cc: Ivan Kokshaysky <ink@jurassic.park.msu.ru>
Cc: Ralf Baechle <ralf@linux-mips.org>
Cc: Kyle McMartin <kyle@mcmartin.ca>
Cc: Helge Deller <deller@gmx.de>
Cc: Chris Zankel <chris@zankel.net>
Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com>
Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
Cc: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com>
Cc: Balbir Singh <balbir@in.ibm.com>
Cc: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk>
Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com>
Cc: Lee Schermerhorn <lee.schermerhorn@hp.com>
Cc: Avi Kivity <avi@redhat.com>
Cc: Nick Piggin <nickpiggin@yahoo.com.au>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agoksm: first tidy up madvise_vma()
Hugh Dickins [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:01:52 +0000]
ksm: first tidy up madvise_vma()

madvise.c has several levels of switch statements, what to do in which?
Move MADV_DOFORK code down from madvise_vma() to madvise_behavior(), so
madvise_vma() can be a simple router, to madvise_behavior() by default.

vma->vm_flags is an unsigned long so use the same type for new_flags.  Add
missing comment lines to describe MADV_DONTFORK and MADV_DOFORK.

Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk>
Signed-off-by: Chris Wright <chrisw@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Izik Eidus <ieidus@redhat.com>
Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com>
Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
Cc: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com>
Cc: Balbir Singh <balbir@in.ibm.com>
Cc: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk>
Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com>
Cc: Lee Schermerhorn <lee.schermerhorn@hp.com>
Cc: Avi Kivity <avi@redhat.com>
Cc: Nick Piggin <nickpiggin@yahoo.com.au>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agoksm: add mmu_notifier set_pte_at_notify()
Izik Eidus [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:01:51 +0000]
ksm: add mmu_notifier set_pte_at_notify()

KSM is a linux driver that allows dynamicly sharing identical memory pages
between one or more processes.

Unlike tradtional page sharing that is made at the allocation of the
memory, ksm do it dynamicly after the memory was created.  Memory is
periodically scanned; identical pages are identified and merged.

The sharing is made in a transparent way to the processes that use it.

Ksm is highly important for hypervisors (kvm), where in production
enviorments there might be many copys of the same data data among the host
memory.  This kind of data can be: similar kernels, librarys, cache, and
so on.

Even that ksm was wrote for kvm, any userspace application that want to
use it to share its data can try it.

Ksm may be useful for any application that might have similar (page
aligment) data strctures among the memory, ksm will find this data merge
it to one copy, and even if it will be changed and thereforew copy on
writed, ksm will merge it again as soon as it will be identical again.

Another reason to consider using ksm is the fact that it might simplify
alot the userspace code of application that want to use shared private
data, instead that the application will mange shared area, ksm will do
this for the application, and even write to this data will be allowed
without any synchinization acts from the application.

Ksm was designed to be a loadable module that doesn't change the VM code
of linux.

This patch:

The set_pte_at_notify() macro allows setting a pte in the shadow page
table directly, instead of flushing the shadow page table entry and then
getting vmexit to set it.  It uses a new change_pte() callback to do so.

set_pte_at_notify() is an optimization for kvm, and other users of
mmu_notifiers, for COW pages.  It is useful for kvm when ksm is used,
because it allows kvm not to have to receive vmexit and only then map the
ksm page into the shadow page table, but instead map it directly at the
same time as Linux maps the page into the host page table.

Users of mmu_notifiers who don't implement new mmu_notifier_change_pte()
callback will just receive the mmu_notifier_invalidate_page() callback.

Signed-off-by: Izik Eidus <ieidus@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Chris Wright <chrisw@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk>
Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com>
Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
Cc: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com>
Cc: Balbir Singh <balbir@in.ibm.com>
Cc: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk>
Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com>
Cc: Lee Schermerhorn <lee.schermerhorn@hp.com>
Cc: Avi Kivity <avi@redhat.com>
Cc: Nick Piggin <nickpiggin@yahoo.com.au>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agomm: perform non-atomic test-clear of PG_mlocked on free
Johannes Weiner [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:01:48 +0000]
mm: perform non-atomic test-clear of PG_mlocked on free

By the time PG_mlocked is cleared in the page freeing path, nobody else is
looking at our page->flags anymore.

It is thus safe to make the test-and-clear non-atomic and thereby removing
an unnecessary and expensive operation from a hotpath.

Signed-off-by: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org>
Reviewed-by: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org>
Reviewed-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com>
Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie>
Cc: Nick Piggin <nickpiggin@yahoo.com.au>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agovmalloc.c: fix double error checking
Figo.zhang [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:01:47 +0000]
vmalloc.c: fix double error checking

There is no need for double error checking.

Signed-off-by: Figo.zhang <figo1802@gmail.com>
Acked-by: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agomm: add gfp mask checking for __get_free_pages()
Akinobu Mita [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:01:47 +0000]
mm: add gfp mask checking for __get_free_pages()

__get_free_pages() with __GFP_HIGHMEM is not safe because the return
address cannot represent a highmem page.  get_zeroed_page() already has
such a debug checking.

Signed-off-by: Akinobu Mita <akinobu.mita@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agovmscan: kill unnecessary prefetch
KOSAKI Motohiro [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:01:46 +0000]
vmscan: kill unnecessary prefetch

The pages in the list passed move_active_pages_to_lru() are already
touched by shrink_active_list().  IOW the prefetch in
move_active_pages_to_lru() don't populate any cache.  it's pointless.

This patch remove it.

Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com>
Reviewed-by: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org>
Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
Cc: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com>
Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie>
Cc: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agovmscan: kill unnecessary page flag test
KOSAKI Motohiro [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:01:45 +0000]
vmscan: kill unnecessary page flag test

The page_lru() already evaluate PageActive() and PageSwapBacked().  We
don't need to re-evaluate it.

Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com>
Reviewed-by: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org>
Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
Cc: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com>
Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie>
Cc: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agovmscan: move ClearPageActive from move_active_pages() to shrink_active_list()
KOSAKI Motohiro [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:01:44 +0000]
vmscan: move ClearPageActive from move_active_pages() to shrink_active_list()

The move_active_pages_to_lru() function is called under irq disabled and
ClearPageActive() doesn't need irq disabling.

Then, this patch move it into shrink_active_list().

Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com>
Reviewed-by: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org>
Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
Cc: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com>
Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie>
Cc: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agovmscan: don't attempt to reclaim anon page in lumpy reclaim when no swap space is...
Minchan Kim [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:01:43 +0000]
vmscan: don't attempt to reclaim anon page in lumpy reclaim when no swap space is available

The VM already avoids attempting to reclaim anon pages in various places,
But it doesn't avoid it for lumpy reclaim.

It shuffles lru list unnecessary so that it is pointless.

[akpm@linux-foundation.org: cleanup]
Signed-off-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com>
Reviewed-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com>
Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie>
Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agomm: count only reclaimable lru pages
Wu Fengguang [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:01:42 +0000]
mm: count only reclaimable lru pages

global_lru_pages() / zone_lru_pages() can be used in two ways:
- to estimate max reclaimable pages in determine_dirtyable_memory()
- to calculate the slab scan ratio

When swap is full or not present, the anon lru lists are not reclaimable
and also won't be scanned.  So the anon pages shall not be counted in both
usage scenarios.  Also rename to _reclaimable_pages: now they are counting
the possibly reclaimable lru pages.

It can greatly (and correctly) increase the slab scan rate under high
memory pressure (when most file pages have been reclaimed and swap is
full/absent), thus reduce false OOM kills.

Acked-by: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl>
Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
Reviewed-by: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org>
Reviewed-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com>
Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com>
Signed-off-by: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com>
Acked-by: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org>
Reviewed-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com>
Reviewed-by: Jesse Barnes <jbarnes@virtuousgeek.org>
Cc: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Cc: "Li, Ming Chun" <macli@brc.ubc.ca>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agovm: document that setting vfs_cache_pressure to 0 isn't a good idea
Jan Kara [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:01:40 +0000]
vm: document that setting vfs_cache_pressure to 0 isn't a good idea

Reported-by: Christian Thaeter <ct@pipapo.org>
Signed-off-by: Jan Kara <jack@suse.cz>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agomm: remove __{add,sub}_zone_page_state()
KOSAKI Motohiro [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:01:39 +0000]
mm: remove __{add,sub}_zone_page_state()

__add_zone_page_state() and __sub_zone_page_state() are unused.

Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com>
Cc: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com>
Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
Cc: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com>
Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agovmscan: throttle direct reclaim when too many pages are isolated already
Rik van Riel [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:01:38 +0000]
vmscan: throttle direct reclaim when too many pages are isolated already

When way too many processes go into direct reclaim, it is possible for all
of the pages to be taken off the LRU.  One result of this is that the next
process in the page reclaim code thinks there are no reclaimable pages
left and triggers an out of memory kill.

One solution to this problem is to never let so many processes into the
page reclaim path that the entire LRU is emptied.  Limiting the system to
only having half of each inactive list isolated for reclaim should be
safe.

Signed-off-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com>
Cc: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com>
Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agomm: vmstat: add isolate pages
KOSAKI Motohiro [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:01:37 +0000]
mm: vmstat: add isolate pages

If the system is running a heavy load of processes then concurrent reclaim
can isolate a large number of pages from the LRU. /proc/vmstat and the
output generated for an OOM do not show how many pages were isolated.

This has been observed during process fork bomb testing (mstctl11 in LTP).

This patch shows the information about isolated pages.

Reproduced via:

-----------------------
% ./hackbench 140 process 1000
   => OOM occur

active_anon:146 inactive_anon:0 isolated_anon:49245
 active_file:79 inactive_file:18 isolated_file:113
 unevictable:0 dirty:0 writeback:0 unstable:0 buffer:39
 free:370 slab_reclaimable:309 slab_unreclaimable:5492
 mapped:53 shmem:15 pagetables:28140 bounce:0

Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com>
Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com>
Reviewed-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com>
Cc: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agomm: shrink_inactive_list() nr_scan accounting fix fix
KOSAKI Motohiro [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:01:36 +0000]
mm: shrink_inactive_list() nr_scan accounting fix fix

If sc->isolate_pages() return 0, we don't need to call shrink_page_list().
In past days, shrink_inactive_list() handled it properly.

But commit fb8d14e1 (three years ago commit!) breaked it.  current
shrink_inactive_list() always call shrink_page_list() although
isolate_pages() return 0.

This patch restore proper return value check.

Requirements:
  o "nr_taken == 0" condition should stay before calling shrink_page_list().
  o "nr_taken == 0" condition should stay after nr_scan related statistics
     modification.

Cc: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com>
Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com>
Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
Reviewed-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agomm: rename pgmoved variable in shrink_active_list()
KOSAKI Motohiro [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:01:35 +0000]
mm: rename pgmoved variable in shrink_active_list()

Currently the pgmoved variable has two meanings.  It causes harder
reviewing.  This patch separates it.

Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com>
Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
Reviewed-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agomm: update alloc_flags after oom killer has been called
David Rientjes [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:01:34 +0000]
mm: update alloc_flags after oom killer has been called

It is possible for the oom killer to select current as the task to kill.
When this happens, alloc_flags needs to be updated accordingly to set
ALLOC_NO_WATERMARKS so the subsequent allocation attempt may use memory
reserves as the result of its thread having TIF_MEMDIE set if the
allocation is not __GFP_NOMEMALLOC.

Acked-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie>
Signed-off-by: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agomm: oom analysis: add shmem vmstat
KOSAKI Motohiro [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:01:33 +0000]
mm: oom analysis: add shmem vmstat

Recently we encountered OOM problems due to memory use of the GEM cache.
Generally a large amuont of Shmem/Tmpfs pages tend to create a memory
shortage problem.

We often use the following calculation to determine the amount of shmem
pages:

shmem = NR_ACTIVE_ANON + NR_INACTIVE_ANON - NR_ANON_PAGES

however the expression does not consider isolated and mlocked pages.

This patch adds explicit accounting for pages used by shmem and tmpfs.

Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com>
Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
Reviewed-by: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org>
Acked-by: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com>
Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com>
Cc: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agomm: oom analysis: Show kernel stack usage in /proc/meminfo and OOM log output
KOSAKI Motohiro [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:01:32 +0000]
mm: oom analysis: Show kernel stack usage in /proc/meminfo and OOM log output

The amount of memory allocated to kernel stacks can become significant and
cause OOM conditions.  However, we do not display the amount of memory
consumed by stacks.

Add code to display the amount of memory used for stacks in /proc/meminfo.

Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com>
Reviewed-by: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org>
Reviewed-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com>
Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agomm: oom analysis: add buffer cache information to show_free_areas()
KOSAKI Motohiro [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:01:31 +0000]
mm: oom analysis: add buffer cache information to show_free_areas()

It is often useful to know the statistics for all pages that are handled
like page cache pages when looking at OOM log output.

Therefore show_free_areas() should also display buffer cache statistics.

Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com>
Acked-by: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com>
Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agomm: oom analysis: add per-zone statistics to show_free_areas()
KOSAKI Motohiro [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:01:30 +0000]
mm: oom analysis: add per-zone statistics to show_free_areas()

show_free_areas() displays only a limited amount of zone counters.  This
patch includes additional counters in the display to allow easier
debugging.  This may be especially useful if an OOM is due to running out
of DMA memory.

Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com>
Reviewed-by: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org>
Acked-by: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com>
Reviewed-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com>
Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agoDocumentation/memory.txt: remove some very outdated recommendations
Andi Kleen [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:01:29 +0000]
Documentation/memory.txt: remove some very outdated recommendations

Remove some very outdated recommendations in Documentation/memory.txt

Signed-off-by: Andi Kleen <ak@linux.intel.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agomm: show_free_areas(): display slab pages in two separate fields
KOSAKI Motohiro [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:01:29 +0000]
mm: show_free_areas(): display slab pages in two separate fields

If an OOM happens, we really want to know the number of remaining
reclaimable pages.  So the reclaimable slab and unreclaimable slab fields
should not be combined for display.

Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com>
Reviewed-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agomm: clean up page_remove_rmap()
KOSAKI Motohiro [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:01:28 +0000]
mm: clean up page_remove_rmap()

page_remove_rmap() has multiple PageAnon() tests and it has deep nesting.
Clean this up.

Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com>
Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com>
Acked-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie>
Reviewed-by: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com>
Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agohugetlb: restore interleaving of bootmem huge pages
Lee Schermerhorn [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:01:25 +0000]
hugetlb: restore interleaving of bootmem huge pages

I noticed that alloc_bootmem_huge_page() will only advance to the next
node on failure to allocate a huge page, potentially filling nodes with
huge-pages.  I asked about this on linux-mm and linux-numa, cc'ing the
usual huge page suspects.

Mel Gorman responded:

I strongly suspect that the same node being used until allocation
failure instead of round-robin is an oversight and not deliberate
at all. It appears to be a side-effect of a fix made way back in
commit 63b4613c3f0d4b724ba259dc6c201bb68b884e1a ["hugetlb: fix
hugepage allocation with memoryless nodes"]. Prior to that patch
it looked like allocations would always round-robin even when
allocation was successful.

This patch--factored out of my "hugetlb mempolicy" series--moves the
advance of the hstate next node from which to allocate up before the test
for success of the attempted allocation.

Note that alloc_bootmem_huge_page() is only used for order > MAX_ORDER
huge pages.

I'll post a separate patch for mainline/stable, as the above mentioned
"balance freeing" series renamed the next node to alloc function.

Signed-off-by: Lee Schermerhorn <lee.schermerhorn@hp.com>
Reviewed-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie>
Reviewed-by: Andy Whitcroft <apw@canonical.com>
Reviewed-by: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agohugetlb: clean up and update huge pages documentation
Lee Schermerhorn [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:01:24 +0000]
hugetlb: clean up and update huge pages documentation

Attempt to clarify huge page administration and usage, and updates the
doucmentation to mention the balancing of huge pages across nodes when
allocating and freeing.

Signed-off-by: Lee Schermerhorn <lee.schermerhorn@hp.com>
Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie>
Cc: Nishanth Aravamudan <nacc@us.ibm.com>
Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com>
Cc: Adam Litke <agl@us.ibm.com>
Cc: Andy Whitcroft <apw@canonical.com>
Cc: Eric Whitney <eric.whitney@hp.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agohugetlb: use free_pool_huge_page() to return unused surplus pages
Lee Schermerhorn [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:01:23 +0000]
hugetlb: use free_pool_huge_page() to return unused surplus pages

Use the [modified] free_pool_huge_page() function to return unused
surplus pages.  This will help keep huge pages balanced across nodes
between freeing of unused surplus pages and freeing of persistent huge
pages [from set_max_huge_pages] by using the same node id "cursor". It
also eliminates some code duplication.

Signed-off-by: Lee Schermerhorn <lee.schermerhorn@hp.com>
Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie>
Cc: Nishanth Aravamudan <nacc@us.ibm.com>
Acked-by: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com>
Cc: Adam Litke <agl@us.ibm.com>
Cc: Andy Whitcroft <apw@canonical.com>
Cc: Eric Whitney <eric.whitney@hp.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agohugetlb: balance freeing of huge pages across nodes
Lee Schermerhorn [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:01:22 +0000]
hugetlb: balance freeing of huge pages across nodes

Free huges pages from nodes in round robin fashion in an attempt to keep
[persistent a.k.a static] hugepages balanced across nodes

New function free_pool_huge_page() is modeled on and performs roughly the
inverse of alloc_fresh_huge_page().  Replaces dequeue_huge_page() which
now has no callers, so this patch removes it.

Helper function hstate_next_node_to_free() uses new hstate member
next_to_free_nid to distribute "frees" across all nodes with huge pages.

Acked-by: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Lee Schermerhorn <lee.schermerhorn@hp.com>
Acked-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie>
Cc: Nishanth Aravamudan <nacc@us.ibm.com>
Cc: Adam Litke <agl@us.ibm.com>
Cc: Andy Whitcroft <apw@canonical.com>
Cc: Eric Whitney <eric.whitney@hp.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agopage_alloc: fix kernel-doc warning
Randy Dunlap [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:01:20 +0000]
page_alloc: fix kernel-doc warning

Ummark function as having kernel-doc notation, fixing the kernel-doc
warning.

Warning(mm/page_alloc.c:4519): No description found for parameter 'zone'

Signed-off-by: Randy Dunlap <randy.dunlap@oracle.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agomemory hotplug: migrate swap cache page
Shaohua Li [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:01:19 +0000]
memory hotplug: migrate swap cache page

In test, some pages in swap-cache can't be migrated, as they aren't rmap.

unmap_and_move() ignores swap-cache page which is just read in and hasn't
rmap (see the comments in the code), but swap_aops provides .migratepage.
Better to migrate such pages instead of ignore them.

Signed-off-by: Shaohua Li <shaohua.li@intel.com>
Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie>
Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Yakui Zhao <yakui.zhao@intel.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agomemory hotplug: alloc page from other node in memory online
Shaohua Li [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:01:19 +0000]
memory hotplug: alloc page from other node in memory online

To initialize hotadded node, some pages are allocated.  At that time, the
node hasn't memory, this makes the allocation always fail.  In such case,
let's allocate pages from other nodes.

Signed-off-by: Shaohua Li <shaohua.li@intel.com>
Signed-off-by: Yakui Zhao <yakui.zhao@intel.com>
Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie>
Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agomemory hotplug: make pages from movable zone always isolatable
Shaohua Li [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:01:18 +0000]
memory hotplug: make pages from movable zone always isolatable

Pages on movable zone have two types, MIGRATE_MOVABLE and MIGRATE_RESERVE,
both them can be movable, because only movable memory allocation can get
pages from movable zone.  This makes pages in movable zone always be able
to migrate.

Signed-off-by: Shaohua Li <shaohua.li@intel.com>
Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie>
Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Yakui Zhao <yakui.zhao@intel.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agomemory hotplug: exclude isolated page from pco page alloc
Shaohua Li [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:01:17 +0000]
memory hotplug: exclude isolated page from pco page alloc

Pages marked as isolated should not be allocated again.  If such pages
reside in pcp list, they can be allocated too, so there is a ping-pong
memory offline frees some pages to pcp list and the pages get allocated
and then memory offline frees them again, this loop will happen again and
again.

This should have no impact in normal code path, because in normal code
path, pages in pcp list aren't isolated, and below loop will break in the
first entry.

Signed-off-by: Shaohua Li <shaohua.li@intel.com>
Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie>
Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Yakui Zhao <yakui.zhao@intel.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agomemory hotplug: update zone pcp at memory online
Shaohua Li [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:01:16 +0000]
memory hotplug: update zone pcp at memory online

In my test, 128M memory is hot added, but zone's pcp batch is 0, which is
an obvious error.  When pages are onlined, zone pcp should be updated
accordingly.

[akpm@linux-foundation.org: fix warnings]
Signed-off-by: Shaohua Li <shaohua.li@intel.com>
Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie>
Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Yakui Zhao <yakui.zhao@intel.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agomm: remove obsoleted alloc_pages cpuset comment
David Rientjes [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:01:15 +0000]
mm: remove obsoleted alloc_pages cpuset comment

When a cpuset's nodemask is updated, all attached tasks have their cached
task->mems_allowed updated by a heap instead of requiring an explicit call
to cpuset_update_task_memory_state(), which has since been removed in
58568d2a8215cb6f55caf2332017d7bdff954e1c ("cpuset,mm: update tasks'
mems_allowed in time").

Remove the obsoleted comment from the page allocator.

Cc: Paul Menage <menage@google.com>
Acked-by: Miao Xie <miaox@cn.fujitsu.com>
Signed-off-by: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agomm: make swap token dummies static inlines
Johannes Weiner [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:01:13 +0000]
mm: make swap token dummies static inlines

Make use of the compiler's typechecking on !CONFIG_SWAP as well.

[akpm@linux-foundation.org: build fix]
Signed-off-by: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org>
Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
Cc: Randy Dunlap <randy.dunlap@oracle.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agoconst: make block_device_operations const
Alexey Dobriyan [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:01:13 +0000]
const: make block_device_operations const

Signed-off-by: Alexey Dobriyan <adobriyan@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agoconst: make lock_manager_operations const
Alexey Dobriyan [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:01:12 +0000]
const: make lock_manager_operations const

Signed-off-by: Alexey Dobriyan <adobriyan@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agoconst: make file_lock_operations const
Alexey Dobriyan [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:01:11 +0000]
const: make file_lock_operations const

Signed-off-by: Alexey Dobriyan <adobriyan@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agoconst: mark remaining inode_operations as const
Alexey Dobriyan [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:01:11 +0000]
const: mark remaining inode_operations as const

Signed-off-by: Alexey Dobriyan <adobriyan@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agoconst: mark remaining address_space_operations const
Alexey Dobriyan [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:01:10 +0000]
const: mark remaining address_space_operations const

Signed-off-by: Alexey Dobriyan <adobriyan@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agoconst: mark remaining export_operations const
Alexey Dobriyan [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:01:10 +0000]
const: mark remaining export_operations const

Signed-off-by: Alexey Dobriyan <adobriyan@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agoconst: mark remaining super_operations const
Alexey Dobriyan [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:01:09 +0000]
const: mark remaining super_operations const

Signed-off-by: Alexey Dobriyan <adobriyan@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agoconst: make struct super_block::s_qcop const
Alexey Dobriyan [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:01:09 +0000]
const: make struct super_block::s_qcop const

Signed-off-by: Alexey Dobriyan <adobriyan@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agoconst: make struct super_block::dq_op const
Alexey Dobriyan [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:01:08 +0000]
const: make struct super_block::dq_op const

Signed-off-by: Alexey Dobriyan <adobriyan@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agodrivers/mfd/ab3100-core.c: fix powerpc build error
Andrew Morton [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:01:07 +0000]
drivers/mfd/ab3100-core.c: fix powerpc build error

drivers/mfd/ab3100-core.c:647: error: ab3100_init_settings causes a section type conflict

Cc: Anton Vorontsov <avorontsov@ru.mvista.com>
Cc: Samuel Ortiz <sameo@linux.intel.com>
Cc: Benjamin Herrenschmidt <benh@kernel.crashing.org>
Cc: <stable@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

9 years agoproc: document `guest' column in /proc/stat
Eric Dumazet [Tue, 22 Sep 2009 00:01:06 +0000]
proc: document `guest' column in /proc/stat

We added a new column in cpuX lines of /proc/stat, to show the amount of
time spent by a cpu servicing a guest, without updating
Documentation/filesystems/proc.txt

Signed-off-by: Eric Dumazet <eric.dumazet@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>