TCPCT part 1b: generate Responder Cookie secret
William Allen Simpson [Wed, 2 Dec 2009 18:12:09 +0000 (18:12 +0000)]
Define (missing) hash message size for SHA1.

Define hashing size constants specific to TCP cookies.

Add new function: tcp_cookie_generator().

Maintain global secret values for tcp_cookie_generator().

This is a significantly revised implementation of earlier (15-year-old)
Photuris [RFC-2522] code for the KA9Q cooperative multitasking platform.

Linux RCU technique appears to be well-suited to this application, though
neither of the circular queue items are freed.

These functions will also be used in subsequent patches that implement
additional features.

Signed-off-by: William.Allen.Simpson@gmail.com
Acked-by: Eric Dumazet <eric.dumazet@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>

include/linux/cryptohash.h
include/net/tcp.h
net/ipv4/tcp.c

index c118b2a..ec78a4b 100644 (file)
@@ -2,6 +2,7 @@
 #define __CRYPTOHASH_H
 
 #define SHA_DIGEST_WORDS 5
+#define SHA_MESSAGE_BYTES (512 /*bits*/ / 8)
 #define SHA_WORKSPACE_WORDS 80
 
 void sha_init(__u32 *buf);
index ec183fd..4a99a8e 100644 (file)
@@ -1478,6 +1478,14 @@ struct tcp_request_sock_ops {
 #endif
 };
 
+/* Using SHA1 for now, define some constants.
+ */
+#define COOKIE_DIGEST_WORDS (SHA_DIGEST_WORDS)
+#define COOKIE_MESSAGE_WORDS (SHA_MESSAGE_BYTES / 4)
+#define COOKIE_WORKSPACE_WORDS (COOKIE_DIGEST_WORDS + COOKIE_MESSAGE_WORDS)
+
+extern int tcp_cookie_generator(u32 *bakery);
+
 extern void tcp_v4_init(void);
 extern void tcp_init(void);
 
index 7d4648f..ba03ac8 100644 (file)
 #include <linux/cache.h>
 #include <linux/err.h>
 #include <linux/crypto.h>
+#include <linux/time.h>
 
 #include <net/icmp.h>
 #include <net/tcp.h>
@@ -2848,6 +2849,135 @@ EXPORT_SYMBOL(tcp_md5_hash_key);
 
 #endif
 
+/**
+ * Each Responder maintains up to two secret values concurrently for
+ * efficient secret rollover.  Each secret value has 4 states:
+ *
+ * Generating.  (tcp_secret_generating != tcp_secret_primary)
+ *    Generates new Responder-Cookies, but not yet used for primary
+ *    verification.  This is a short-term state, typically lasting only
+ *    one round trip time (RTT).
+ *
+ * Primary.  (tcp_secret_generating == tcp_secret_primary)
+ *    Used both for generation and primary verification.
+ *
+ * Retiring.  (tcp_secret_retiring != tcp_secret_secondary)
+ *    Used for verification, until the first failure that can be
+ *    verified by the newer Generating secret.  At that time, this
+ *    cookie's state is changed to Secondary, and the Generating
+ *    cookie's state is changed to Primary.  This is a short-term state,
+ *    typically lasting only one round trip time (RTT).
+ *
+ * Secondary.  (tcp_secret_retiring == tcp_secret_secondary)
+ *    Used for secondary verification, after primary verification
+ *    failures.  This state lasts no more than twice the Maximum Segment
+ *    Lifetime (2MSL).  Then, the secret is discarded.
+ */
+struct tcp_cookie_secret {
+       /* The secret is divided into two parts.  The digest part is the
+        * equivalent of previously hashing a secret and saving the state,
+        * and serves as an initialization vector (IV).  The message part
+        * serves as the trailing secret.
+        */
+       u32                             secrets[COOKIE_WORKSPACE_WORDS];
+       unsigned long                   expires;
+};
+
+#define TCP_SECRET_1MSL (HZ * TCP_PAWS_MSL)
+#define TCP_SECRET_2MSL (HZ * TCP_PAWS_MSL * 2)
+#define TCP_SECRET_LIFE (HZ * 600)
+
+static struct tcp_cookie_secret tcp_secret_one;
+static struct tcp_cookie_secret tcp_secret_two;
+
+/* Essentially a circular list, without dynamic allocation. */
+static struct tcp_cookie_secret *tcp_secret_generating;
+static struct tcp_cookie_secret *tcp_secret_primary;
+static struct tcp_cookie_secret *tcp_secret_retiring;
+static struct tcp_cookie_secret *tcp_secret_secondary;
+
+static DEFINE_SPINLOCK(tcp_secret_locker);
+
+/* Select a pseudo-random word in the cookie workspace.
+ */
+static inline u32 tcp_cookie_work(const u32 *ws, const int n)
+{
+       return ws[COOKIE_DIGEST_WORDS + ((COOKIE_MESSAGE_WORDS-1) & ws[n])];
+}
+
+/* Fill bakery[COOKIE_WORKSPACE_WORDS] with generator, updating as needed.
+ * Called in softirq context.
+ * Returns: 0 for success.
+ */
+int tcp_cookie_generator(u32 *bakery)
+{
+       unsigned long jiffy = jiffies;
+
+       if (unlikely(time_after_eq(jiffy, tcp_secret_generating->expires))) {
+               spin_lock_bh(&tcp_secret_locker);
+               if (!time_after_eq(jiffy, tcp_secret_generating->expires)) {
+                       /* refreshed by another */
+                       memcpy(bakery,
+                              &tcp_secret_generating->secrets[0],
+                              COOKIE_WORKSPACE_WORDS);
+               } else {
+                       /* still needs refreshing */
+                       get_random_bytes(bakery, COOKIE_WORKSPACE_WORDS);
+
+                       /* The first time, paranoia assumes that the
+                        * randomization function isn't as strong.  But,
+                        * this secret initialization is delayed until
+                        * the last possible moment (packet arrival).
+                        * Although that time is observable, it is
+                        * unpredictably variable.  Mash in the most
+                        * volatile clock bits available, and expire the
+                        * secret extra quickly.
+                        */
+                       if (unlikely(tcp_secret_primary->expires ==
+                                    tcp_secret_secondary->expires)) {
+                               struct timespec tv;
+
+                               getnstimeofday(&tv);
+                               bakery[COOKIE_DIGEST_WORDS+0] ^=
+                                       (u32)tv.tv_nsec;
+
+                               tcp_secret_secondary->expires = jiffy
+                                       + TCP_SECRET_1MSL
+                                       + (0x0f & tcp_cookie_work(bakery, 0));
+                       } else {
+                               tcp_secret_secondary->expires = jiffy
+                                       + TCP_SECRET_LIFE
+                                       + (0xff & tcp_cookie_work(bakery, 1));
+                               tcp_secret_primary->expires = jiffy
+                                       + TCP_SECRET_2MSL
+                                       + (0x1f & tcp_cookie_work(bakery, 2));
+                       }
+                       memcpy(&tcp_secret_secondary->secrets[0],
+                              bakery, COOKIE_WORKSPACE_WORDS);
+
+                       rcu_assign_pointer(tcp_secret_generating,
+                                          tcp_secret_secondary);
+                       rcu_assign_pointer(tcp_secret_retiring,
+                                          tcp_secret_primary);
+                       /*
+                        * Neither call_rcu() nor synchronize_rcu() needed.
+                        * Retiring data is not freed.  It is replaced after
+                        * further (locked) pointer updates, and a quiet time
+                        * (minimum 1MSL, maximum LIFE - 2MSL).
+                        */
+               }
+               spin_unlock_bh(&tcp_secret_locker);
+       } else {
+               rcu_read_lock_bh();
+               memcpy(bakery,
+                      &rcu_dereference(tcp_secret_generating)->secrets[0],
+                      COOKIE_WORKSPACE_WORDS);
+               rcu_read_unlock_bh();
+       }
+       return 0;
+}
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(tcp_cookie_generator);
+
 void tcp_done(struct sock *sk)
 {
        if (sk->sk_state == TCP_SYN_SENT || sk->sk_state == TCP_SYN_RECV)
@@ -2882,6 +3012,7 @@ void __init tcp_init(void)
        struct sk_buff *skb = NULL;
        unsigned long nr_pages, limit;
        int order, i, max_share;
+       unsigned long jiffy = jiffies;
 
        BUILD_BUG_ON(sizeof(struct tcp_skb_cb) > sizeof(skb->cb));
 
@@ -2975,6 +3106,15 @@ void __init tcp_init(void)
               tcp_hashinfo.ehash_mask + 1, tcp_hashinfo.bhash_size);
 
        tcp_register_congestion_control(&tcp_reno);
+
+       memset(&tcp_secret_one.secrets[0], 0, sizeof(tcp_secret_one.secrets));
+       memset(&tcp_secret_two.secrets[0], 0, sizeof(tcp_secret_two.secrets));
+       tcp_secret_one.expires = jiffy; /* past due */
+       tcp_secret_two.expires = jiffy; /* past due */
+       tcp_secret_generating = &tcp_secret_one;
+       tcp_secret_primary = &tcp_secret_one;
+       tcp_secret_retiring = &tcp_secret_two;
+       tcp_secret_secondary = &tcp_secret_two;
 }
 
 EXPORT_SYMBOL(tcp_close);