ARM: 6396/1: Add SWP/SWPB emulation for ARMv7 processors
Leif Lindholm [Thu, 16 Sep 2010 17:00:47 +0000 (18:00 +0100)]
The SWP instruction was deprecated in the ARMv6 architecture,
superseded by the LDREX/STREX family of instructions for
load-linked/store-conditional operations. The ARMv7 multiprocessing
extensions mandate that SWP/SWPB instructions are treated as undefined
from reset, with the ability to enable them through the System Control
Register SW bit.

This patch adds the alternative solution to emulate the SWP and SWPB
instructions using LDREX/STREX sequences, and log statistics to
/proc/cpu/swp_emulation. To correctly deal with copy-on-write, it also
modifies cpu_v7_set_pte_ext to change the mappings to priviliged RO when
user RO.

Signed-off-by: Leif Lindholm <leif.lindholm@arm.com>
Acked-by: Catalin Marinas <catalin.marinas@arm.com>
Acked-by: Kirill A. Shutemov <kirill@shutemov.name>
Signed-off-by: Russell King <rmk+kernel@arm.linux.org.uk>

Documentation/arm/00-INDEX
Documentation/arm/swp_emulation [new file with mode: 0644]
arch/arm/kernel/Makefile
arch/arm/kernel/swp_emulate.c [new file with mode: 0644]
arch/arm/mm/Kconfig
arch/arm/mm/proc-v7.S

index ecf7d04..91c24a1 100644 (file)
@@ -34,3 +34,5 @@ memory.txt
        - description of the virtual memory layout
 nwfpe/
        - NWFPE floating point emulator documentation
+swp_emulation
+       - SWP/SWPB emulation handler/logging description
diff --git a/Documentation/arm/swp_emulation b/Documentation/arm/swp_emulation
new file mode 100644 (file)
index 0000000..af903d2
--- /dev/null
@@ -0,0 +1,27 @@
+Software emulation of deprecated SWP instruction (CONFIG_SWP_EMULATE)
+---------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+ARMv6 architecture deprecates use of the SWP/SWPB instructions, and recommeds
+moving to the load-locked/store-conditional instructions LDREX and STREX.
+
+ARMv7 multiprocessing extensions introduce the ability to disable these
+instructions, triggering an undefined instruction exception when executed.
+Trapped instructions are emulated using an LDREX/STREX or LDREXB/STREXB
+sequence. If a memory access fault (an abort) occurs, a segmentation fault is
+signalled to the triggering process.
+
+/proc/cpu/swp_emulation holds some statistics/information, including the PID of
+the last process to trigger the emulation to be invocated. For example:
+---
+Emulated SWP:          12
+Emulated SWPB:         0
+Aborted SWP{B}:                1
+Last process:          314
+---
+
+NOTE: when accessing uncached shared regions, LDREX/STREX rely on an external
+transaction monitoring block called a global monitor to maintain update
+atomicity. If your system does not implement a global monitor, this option can
+cause programs that perform SWP operations to uncached memory to deadlock, as
+the STREX operation will always fail.
+
index 5b9b268..119a6bb 100644 (file)
@@ -42,6 +42,7 @@ obj-$(CONFIG_KGDB)            += kgdb.o
 obj-$(CONFIG_ARM_UNWIND)       += unwind.o
 obj-$(CONFIG_HAVE_TCM)         += tcm.o
 obj-$(CONFIG_CRASH_DUMP)       += crash_dump.o
+obj-$(CONFIG_SWP_EMULATE)      += swp_emulate.o
 obj-$(CONFIG_HAVE_HW_BREAKPOINT)       += hw_breakpoint.o
 
 obj-$(CONFIG_CRUNCH)           += crunch.o crunch-bits.o
diff --git a/arch/arm/kernel/swp_emulate.c b/arch/arm/kernel/swp_emulate.c
new file mode 100644 (file)
index 0000000..7a57609
--- /dev/null
@@ -0,0 +1,267 @@
+/*
+ *  linux/arch/arm/kernel/swp_emulate.c
+ *
+ *  Copyright (C) 2009 ARM Limited
+ *  __user_* functions adapted from include/asm/uaccess.h
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as
+ * published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ *
+ *  Implements emulation of the SWP/SWPB instructions using load-exclusive and
+ *  store-exclusive for processors that have them disabled (or future ones that
+ *  might not implement them).
+ *
+ *  Syntax of SWP{B} instruction: SWP{B}<c> <Rt>, <Rt2>, [<Rn>]
+ *  Where: Rt  = destination
+ *        Rt2 = source
+ *        Rn  = address
+ */
+
+#include <linux/init.h>
+#include <linux/kernel.h>
+#include <linux/proc_fs.h>
+#include <linux/sched.h>
+#include <linux/syscalls.h>
+#include <linux/perf_event.h>
+
+#include <asm/traps.h>
+#include <asm/uaccess.h>
+
+/*
+ * Error-checking SWP macros implemented using ldrex{b}/strex{b}
+ */
+#define __user_swpX_asm(data, addr, res, temp, B)              \
+       __asm__ __volatile__(                                   \
+       "       mov             %2, %1\n"                       \
+       "0:     ldrex"B"        %1, [%3]\n"                     \
+       "1:     strex"B"        %0, %2, [%3]\n"                 \
+       "       cmp             %0, #0\n"                       \
+       "       movne           %0, %4\n"                       \
+       "2:\n"                                                  \
+       "       .section         .fixup,\"ax\"\n"               \
+       "       .align          2\n"                            \
+       "3:     mov             %0, %5\n"                       \
+       "       b               2b\n"                           \
+       "       .previous\n"                                    \
+       "       .section         __ex_table,\"a\"\n"            \
+       "       .align          3\n"                            \
+       "       .long           0b, 3b\n"                       \
+       "       .long           1b, 3b\n"                       \
+       "       .previous"                                      \
+       : "=&r" (res), "+r" (data), "=&r" (temp)                \
+       : "r" (addr), "i" (-EAGAIN), "i" (-EFAULT)              \
+       : "cc", "memory")
+
+#define __user_swp_asm(data, addr, res, temp) \
+       __user_swpX_asm(data, addr, res, temp, "")
+#define __user_swpb_asm(data, addr, res, temp) \
+       __user_swpX_asm(data, addr, res, temp, "b")
+
+/*
+ * Macros/defines for extracting register numbers from instruction.
+ */
+#define EXTRACT_REG_NUM(instruction, offset) \
+       (((instruction) & (0xf << (offset))) >> (offset))
+#define RN_OFFSET  16
+#define RT_OFFSET  12
+#define RT2_OFFSET  0
+/*
+ * Bit 22 of the instruction encoding distinguishes between
+ * the SWP and SWPB variants (bit set means SWPB).
+ */
+#define TYPE_SWPB (1 << 22)
+
+static unsigned long swpcounter;
+static unsigned long swpbcounter;
+static unsigned long abtcounter;
+static pid_t         previous_pid;
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_PROC_FS
+static int proc_read_status(char *page, char **start, off_t off, int count,
+                           int *eof, void *data)
+{
+       char *p = page;
+       int len;
+
+       p += sprintf(p, "Emulated SWP:\t\t%lu\n", swpcounter);
+       p += sprintf(p, "Emulated SWPB:\t\t%lu\n", swpbcounter);
+       p += sprintf(p, "Aborted SWP{B}:\t\t%lu\n", abtcounter);
+       if (previous_pid != 0)
+               p += sprintf(p, "Last process:\t\t%d\n", previous_pid);
+
+       len = (p - page) - off;
+       if (len < 0)
+               len = 0;
+
+       *eof = (len <= count) ? 1 : 0;
+       *start = page + off;
+
+       return len;
+}
+#endif
+
+/*
+ * Set up process info to signal segmentation fault - called on access error.
+ */
+static void set_segfault(struct pt_regs *regs, unsigned long addr)
+{
+       siginfo_t info;
+
+       if (find_vma(current->mm, addr) == NULL)
+               info.si_code = SEGV_MAPERR;
+       else
+               info.si_code = SEGV_ACCERR;
+
+       info.si_signo = SIGSEGV;
+       info.si_errno = 0;
+       info.si_addr  = (void *) instruction_pointer(regs);
+
+       pr_debug("SWP{B} emulation: access caused memory abort!\n");
+       arm_notify_die("Illegal memory access", regs, &info, 0, 0);
+
+       abtcounter++;
+}
+
+static int emulate_swpX(unsigned int address, unsigned int *data,
+                       unsigned int type)
+{
+       unsigned int res = 0;
+
+       if ((type != TYPE_SWPB) && (address & 0x3)) {
+               /* SWP to unaligned address not permitted */
+               pr_debug("SWP instruction on unaligned pointer!\n");
+               return -EFAULT;
+       }
+
+       while (1) {
+               unsigned long temp;
+
+               /*
+                * Barrier required between accessing protected resource and
+                * releasing a lock for it. Legacy code might not have done
+                * this, and we cannot determine that this is not the case
+                * being emulated, so insert always.
+                */
+               smp_mb();
+
+               if (type == TYPE_SWPB)
+                       __user_swpb_asm(*data, address, res, temp);
+               else
+                       __user_swp_asm(*data, address, res, temp);
+
+               if (likely(res != -EAGAIN) || signal_pending(current))
+                       break;
+
+               cond_resched();
+       }
+
+       if (res == 0) {
+               /*
+                * Barrier also required between aquiring a lock for a
+                * protected resource and accessing the resource. Inserted for
+                * same reason as above.
+                */
+               smp_mb();
+
+               if (type == TYPE_SWPB)
+                       swpbcounter++;
+               else
+                       swpcounter++;
+       }
+
+       return res;
+}
+
+/*
+ * swp_handler logs the id of calling process, dissects the instruction, sanity
+ * checks the memory location, calls emulate_swpX for the actual operation and
+ * deals with fixup/error handling before returning
+ */
+static int swp_handler(struct pt_regs *regs, unsigned int instr)
+{
+       unsigned int address, destreg, data, type;
+       unsigned int res = 0;
+
+       perf_sw_event(PERF_COUNT_SW_EMULATION_FAULTS, 1, 0, regs, regs->ARM_pc);
+
+       if (current->pid != previous_pid) {
+               pr_debug("\"%s\" (%ld) uses deprecated SWP{B} instruction\n",
+                        current->comm, (unsigned long)current->pid);
+               previous_pid = current->pid;
+       }
+
+       address = regs->uregs[EXTRACT_REG_NUM(instr, RN_OFFSET)];
+       data    = regs->uregs[EXTRACT_REG_NUM(instr, RT2_OFFSET)];
+       destreg = EXTRACT_REG_NUM(instr, RT_OFFSET);
+
+       type = instr & TYPE_SWPB;
+
+       pr_debug("addr in r%d->0x%08x, dest is r%d, source in r%d->0x%08x)\n",
+                EXTRACT_REG_NUM(instr, RN_OFFSET), address,
+                destreg, EXTRACT_REG_NUM(instr, RT2_OFFSET), data);
+
+       /* Check access in reasonable access range for both SWP and SWPB */
+       if (!access_ok(VERIFY_WRITE, (address & ~3), 4)) {
+               pr_debug("SWP{B} emulation: access to %p not allowed!\n",
+                        (void *)address);
+               res = -EFAULT;
+       } else {
+               res = emulate_swpX(address, &data, type);
+       }
+
+       if (res == 0) {
+               /*
+                * On successful emulation, revert the adjustment to the PC
+                * made in kernel/traps.c in order to resume execution at the
+                * instruction following the SWP{B}.
+                */
+               regs->ARM_pc += 4;
+               regs->uregs[destreg] = data;
+       } else if (res == -EFAULT) {
+               /*
+                * Memory errors do not mean emulation failed.
+                * Set up signal info to return SEGV, then return OK
+                */
+               set_segfault(regs, address);
+       }
+
+       return 0;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Only emulate SWP/SWPB executed in ARM state/User mode.
+ * The kernel must be SWP free and SWP{B} does not exist in Thumb/ThumbEE.
+ */
+static struct undef_hook swp_hook = {
+       .instr_mask = 0x0fb00ff0,
+       .instr_val  = 0x01000090,
+       .cpsr_mask  = MODE_MASK | PSR_T_BIT | PSR_J_BIT,
+       .cpsr_val   = USR_MODE,
+       .fn         = swp_handler
+};
+
+/*
+ * Register handler and create status file in /proc/cpu
+ * Invoked as late_initcall, since not needed before init spawned.
+ */
+static int __init swp_emulation_init(void)
+{
+#ifdef CONFIG_PROC_FS
+       struct proc_dir_entry *res;
+
+       res = create_proc_entry("cpu/swp_emulation", S_IRUGO, NULL);
+
+       if (!res)
+               return -ENOMEM;
+
+       res->read_proc = proc_read_status;
+#endif /* CONFIG_PROC_FS */
+
+       printk(KERN_NOTICE "Registering SWP/SWPB emulation handler\n");
+       register_undef_hook(&swp_hook);
+
+       return 0;
+}
+
+late_initcall(swp_emulation_init);
index 6d05f79..8493ed0 100644 (file)
@@ -636,6 +636,33 @@ config ARM_THUMBEE
          Say Y here if you have a CPU with the ThumbEE extension and code to
          make use of it. Say N for code that can run on CPUs without ThumbEE.
 
+config SWP_EMULATE
+       bool "Emulate SWP/SWPB instructions"
+       depends on CPU_V7
+       select HAVE_PROC_CPU if PROC_FS
+       default y if SMP
+       help
+         ARMv6 architecture deprecates use of the SWP/SWPB instructions.
+         ARMv7 multiprocessing extensions introduce the ability to disable
+         these instructions, triggering an undefined instruction exception
+         when executed. Say Y here to enable software emulation of these
+         instructions for userspace (not kernel) using LDREX/STREX.
+         Also creates /proc/cpu/swp_emulation for statistics.
+
+         In some older versions of glibc [<=2.8] SWP is used during futex
+         trylock() operations with the assumption that the code will not
+         be preempted. This invalid assumption may be more likely to fail
+         with SWP emulation enabled, leading to deadlock of the user
+         application.
+
+         NOTE: when accessing uncached shared regions, LDREX/STREX rely
+         on an external transaction monitoring block called a global
+         monitor to maintain update atomicity. If your system does not
+         implement a global monitor, this option can cause programs that
+         perform SWP operations to uncached memory to deadlock.
+
+         If unsure, say Y.
+
 config CPU_BIG_ENDIAN
        bool "Build big-endian kernel"
        depends on ARCH_SUPPORTS_BIG_ENDIAN
index cfc11af..2b5b20b 100644 (file)
@@ -314,6 +314,10 @@ __v7_setup:
 #ifdef CONFIG_CPU_ENDIAN_BE8
        orr     r6, r6, #1 << 25                @ big-endian page tables
 #endif
+#ifdef CONFIG_SWP_EMULATE
+       orr     r5, r5, #(1 << 10)              @ set SW bit in "clear"
+       bic     r6, r6, #(1 << 10)              @ clear it in "mmuset"
+#endif
        mrc     p15, 0, r0, c1, c0, 0           @ read control register
        bic     r0, r0, r5                      @ clear bits them
        orr     r0, r0, r6                      @ set them