[PATCH] comments on locking of task->comm
[linux-2.6.git] / fs / exec.c
1 /*
2  *  linux/fs/exec.c
3  *
4  *  Copyright (C) 1991, 1992  Linus Torvalds
5  */
6
7 /*
8  * #!-checking implemented by tytso.
9  */
10 /*
11  * Demand-loading implemented 01.12.91 - no need to read anything but
12  * the header into memory. The inode of the executable is put into
13  * "current->executable", and page faults do the actual loading. Clean.
14  *
15  * Once more I can proudly say that linux stood up to being changed: it
16  * was less than 2 hours work to get demand-loading completely implemented.
17  *
18  * Demand loading changed July 1993 by Eric Youngdale.   Use mmap instead,
19  * current->executable is only used by the procfs.  This allows a dispatch
20  * table to check for several different types  of binary formats.  We keep
21  * trying until we recognize the file or we run out of supported binary
22  * formats. 
23  */
24
25 #include <linux/config.h>
26 #include <linux/slab.h>
27 #include <linux/file.h>
28 #include <linux/mman.h>
29 #include <linux/a.out.h>
30 #include <linux/stat.h>
31 #include <linux/fcntl.h>
32 #include <linux/smp_lock.h>
33 #include <linux/init.h>
34 #include <linux/pagemap.h>
35 #include <linux/highmem.h>
36 #include <linux/spinlock.h>
37 #include <linux/key.h>
38 #include <linux/personality.h>
39 #include <linux/binfmts.h>
40 #include <linux/swap.h>
41 #include <linux/utsname.h>
42 #include <linux/module.h>
43 #include <linux/namei.h>
44 #include <linux/proc_fs.h>
45 #include <linux/ptrace.h>
46 #include <linux/mount.h>
47 #include <linux/security.h>
48 #include <linux/syscalls.h>
49 #include <linux/rmap.h>
50 #include <linux/acct.h>
51
52 #include <asm/uaccess.h>
53 #include <asm/mmu_context.h>
54
55 #ifdef CONFIG_KMOD
56 #include <linux/kmod.h>
57 #endif
58
59 int core_uses_pid;
60 char core_pattern[65] = "core";
61 /* The maximal length of core_pattern is also specified in sysctl.c */
62
63 static struct linux_binfmt *formats;
64 static DEFINE_RWLOCK(binfmt_lock);
65
66 int register_binfmt(struct linux_binfmt * fmt)
67 {
68         struct linux_binfmt ** tmp = &formats;
69
70         if (!fmt)
71                 return -EINVAL;
72         if (fmt->next)
73                 return -EBUSY;
74         write_lock(&binfmt_lock);
75         while (*tmp) {
76                 if (fmt == *tmp) {
77                         write_unlock(&binfmt_lock);
78                         return -EBUSY;
79                 }
80                 tmp = &(*tmp)->next;
81         }
82         fmt->next = formats;
83         formats = fmt;
84         write_unlock(&binfmt_lock);
85         return 0;       
86 }
87
88 EXPORT_SYMBOL(register_binfmt);
89
90 int unregister_binfmt(struct linux_binfmt * fmt)
91 {
92         struct linux_binfmt ** tmp = &formats;
93
94         write_lock(&binfmt_lock);
95         while (*tmp) {
96                 if (fmt == *tmp) {
97                         *tmp = fmt->next;
98                         write_unlock(&binfmt_lock);
99                         return 0;
100                 }
101                 tmp = &(*tmp)->next;
102         }
103         write_unlock(&binfmt_lock);
104         return -EINVAL;
105 }
106
107 EXPORT_SYMBOL(unregister_binfmt);
108
109 static inline void put_binfmt(struct linux_binfmt * fmt)
110 {
111         module_put(fmt->module);
112 }
113
114 /*
115  * Note that a shared library must be both readable and executable due to
116  * security reasons.
117  *
118  * Also note that we take the address to load from from the file itself.
119  */
120 asmlinkage long sys_uselib(const char __user * library)
121 {
122         struct file * file;
123         struct nameidata nd;
124         int error;
125
126         nd.intent.open.flags = FMODE_READ;
127         error = __user_walk(library, LOOKUP_FOLLOW|LOOKUP_OPEN, &nd);
128         if (error)
129                 goto out;
130
131         error = -EINVAL;
132         if (!S_ISREG(nd.dentry->d_inode->i_mode))
133                 goto exit;
134
135         error = permission(nd.dentry->d_inode, MAY_READ | MAY_EXEC, &nd);
136         if (error)
137                 goto exit;
138
139         file = dentry_open(nd.dentry, nd.mnt, O_RDONLY);
140         error = PTR_ERR(file);
141         if (IS_ERR(file))
142                 goto out;
143
144         error = -ENOEXEC;
145         if(file->f_op) {
146                 struct linux_binfmt * fmt;
147
148                 read_lock(&binfmt_lock);
149                 for (fmt = formats ; fmt ; fmt = fmt->next) {
150                         if (!fmt->load_shlib)
151                                 continue;
152                         if (!try_module_get(fmt->module))
153                                 continue;
154                         read_unlock(&binfmt_lock);
155                         error = fmt->load_shlib(file);
156                         read_lock(&binfmt_lock);
157                         put_binfmt(fmt);
158                         if (error != -ENOEXEC)
159                                 break;
160                 }
161                 read_unlock(&binfmt_lock);
162         }
163         fput(file);
164 out:
165         return error;
166 exit:
167         path_release(&nd);
168         goto out;
169 }
170
171 /*
172  * count() counts the number of strings in array ARGV.
173  */
174 static int count(char __user * __user * argv, int max)
175 {
176         int i = 0;
177
178         if (argv != NULL) {
179                 for (;;) {
180                         char __user * p;
181
182                         if (get_user(p, argv))
183                                 return -EFAULT;
184                         if (!p)
185                                 break;
186                         argv++;
187                         if(++i > max)
188                                 return -E2BIG;
189                         cond_resched();
190                 }
191         }
192         return i;
193 }
194
195 /*
196  * 'copy_strings()' copies argument/environment strings from user
197  * memory to free pages in kernel mem. These are in a format ready
198  * to be put directly into the top of new user memory.
199  */
200 static int copy_strings(int argc, char __user * __user * argv,
201                         struct linux_binprm *bprm)
202 {
203         struct page *kmapped_page = NULL;
204         char *kaddr = NULL;
205         int ret;
206
207         while (argc-- > 0) {
208                 char __user *str;
209                 int len;
210                 unsigned long pos;
211
212                 if (get_user(str, argv+argc) ||
213                                 !(len = strnlen_user(str, bprm->p))) {
214                         ret = -EFAULT;
215                         goto out;
216                 }
217
218                 if (bprm->p < len)  {
219                         ret = -E2BIG;
220                         goto out;
221                 }
222
223                 bprm->p -= len;
224                 /* XXX: add architecture specific overflow check here. */
225                 pos = bprm->p;
226
227                 while (len > 0) {
228                         int i, new, err;
229                         int offset, bytes_to_copy;
230                         struct page *page;
231
232                         offset = pos % PAGE_SIZE;
233                         i = pos/PAGE_SIZE;
234                         page = bprm->page[i];
235                         new = 0;
236                         if (!page) {
237                                 page = alloc_page(GFP_HIGHUSER);
238                                 bprm->page[i] = page;
239                                 if (!page) {
240                                         ret = -ENOMEM;
241                                         goto out;
242                                 }
243                                 new = 1;
244                         }
245
246                         if (page != kmapped_page) {
247                                 if (kmapped_page)
248                                         kunmap(kmapped_page);
249                                 kmapped_page = page;
250                                 kaddr = kmap(kmapped_page);
251                         }
252                         if (new && offset)
253                                 memset(kaddr, 0, offset);
254                         bytes_to_copy = PAGE_SIZE - offset;
255                         if (bytes_to_copy > len) {
256                                 bytes_to_copy = len;
257                                 if (new)
258                                         memset(kaddr+offset+len, 0,
259                                                 PAGE_SIZE-offset-len);
260                         }
261                         err = copy_from_user(kaddr+offset, str, bytes_to_copy);
262                         if (err) {
263                                 ret = -EFAULT;
264                                 goto out;
265                         }
266
267                         pos += bytes_to_copy;
268                         str += bytes_to_copy;
269                         len -= bytes_to_copy;
270                 }
271         }
272         ret = 0;
273 out:
274         if (kmapped_page)
275                 kunmap(kmapped_page);
276         return ret;
277 }
278
279 /*
280  * Like copy_strings, but get argv and its values from kernel memory.
281  */
282 int copy_strings_kernel(int argc,char ** argv, struct linux_binprm *bprm)
283 {
284         int r;
285         mm_segment_t oldfs = get_fs();
286         set_fs(KERNEL_DS);
287         r = copy_strings(argc, (char __user * __user *)argv, bprm);
288         set_fs(oldfs);
289         return r;
290 }
291
292 EXPORT_SYMBOL(copy_strings_kernel);
293
294 #ifdef CONFIG_MMU
295 /*
296  * This routine is used to map in a page into an address space: needed by
297  * execve() for the initial stack and environment pages.
298  *
299  * vma->vm_mm->mmap_sem is held for writing.
300  */
301 void install_arg_page(struct vm_area_struct *vma,
302                         struct page *page, unsigned long address)
303 {
304         struct mm_struct *mm = vma->vm_mm;
305         pgd_t * pgd;
306         pud_t * pud;
307         pmd_t * pmd;
308         pte_t * pte;
309
310         if (unlikely(anon_vma_prepare(vma)))
311                 goto out_sig;
312
313         flush_dcache_page(page);
314         pgd = pgd_offset(mm, address);
315
316         spin_lock(&mm->page_table_lock);
317         pud = pud_alloc(mm, pgd, address);
318         if (!pud)
319                 goto out;
320         pmd = pmd_alloc(mm, pud, address);
321         if (!pmd)
322                 goto out;
323         pte = pte_alloc_map(mm, pmd, address);
324         if (!pte)
325                 goto out;
326         if (!pte_none(*pte)) {
327                 pte_unmap(pte);
328                 goto out;
329         }
330         inc_mm_counter(mm, rss);
331         lru_cache_add_active(page);
332         set_pte_at(mm, address, pte, pte_mkdirty(pte_mkwrite(mk_pte(
333                                         page, vma->vm_page_prot))));
334         page_add_anon_rmap(page, vma, address);
335         pte_unmap(pte);
336         spin_unlock(&mm->page_table_lock);
337
338         /* no need for flush_tlb */
339         return;
340 out:
341         spin_unlock(&mm->page_table_lock);
342 out_sig:
343         __free_page(page);
344         force_sig(SIGKILL, current);
345 }
346
347 #define EXTRA_STACK_VM_PAGES    20      /* random */
348
349 int setup_arg_pages(struct linux_binprm *bprm,
350                     unsigned long stack_top,
351                     int executable_stack)
352 {
353         unsigned long stack_base;
354         struct vm_area_struct *mpnt;
355         struct mm_struct *mm = current->mm;
356         int i, ret;
357         long arg_size;
358
359 #ifdef CONFIG_STACK_GROWSUP
360         /* Move the argument and environment strings to the bottom of the
361          * stack space.
362          */
363         int offset, j;
364         char *to, *from;
365
366         /* Start by shifting all the pages down */
367         i = 0;
368         for (j = 0; j < MAX_ARG_PAGES; j++) {
369                 struct page *page = bprm->page[j];
370                 if (!page)
371                         continue;
372                 bprm->page[i++] = page;
373         }
374
375         /* Now move them within their pages */
376         offset = bprm->p % PAGE_SIZE;
377         to = kmap(bprm->page[0]);
378         for (j = 1; j < i; j++) {
379                 memmove(to, to + offset, PAGE_SIZE - offset);
380                 from = kmap(bprm->page[j]);
381                 memcpy(to + PAGE_SIZE - offset, from, offset);
382                 kunmap(bprm->page[j - 1]);
383                 to = from;
384         }
385         memmove(to, to + offset, PAGE_SIZE - offset);
386         kunmap(bprm->page[j - 1]);
387
388         /* Limit stack size to 1GB */
389         stack_base = current->signal->rlim[RLIMIT_STACK].rlim_max;
390         if (stack_base > (1 << 30))
391                 stack_base = 1 << 30;
392         stack_base = PAGE_ALIGN(stack_top - stack_base);
393
394         /* Adjust bprm->p to point to the end of the strings. */
395         bprm->p = stack_base + PAGE_SIZE * i - offset;
396
397         mm->arg_start = stack_base;
398         arg_size = i << PAGE_SHIFT;
399
400         /* zero pages that were copied above */
401         while (i < MAX_ARG_PAGES)
402                 bprm->page[i++] = NULL;
403 #else
404         stack_base = arch_align_stack(stack_top - MAX_ARG_PAGES*PAGE_SIZE);
405         stack_base = PAGE_ALIGN(stack_base);
406         bprm->p += stack_base;
407         mm->arg_start = bprm->p;
408         arg_size = stack_top - (PAGE_MASK & (unsigned long) mm->arg_start);
409 #endif
410
411         arg_size += EXTRA_STACK_VM_PAGES * PAGE_SIZE;
412
413         if (bprm->loader)
414                 bprm->loader += stack_base;
415         bprm->exec += stack_base;
416
417         mpnt = kmem_cache_alloc(vm_area_cachep, SLAB_KERNEL);
418         if (!mpnt)
419                 return -ENOMEM;
420
421         if (security_vm_enough_memory(arg_size >> PAGE_SHIFT)) {
422                 kmem_cache_free(vm_area_cachep, mpnt);
423                 return -ENOMEM;
424         }
425
426         memset(mpnt, 0, sizeof(*mpnt));
427
428         down_write(&mm->mmap_sem);
429         {
430                 mpnt->vm_mm = mm;
431 #ifdef CONFIG_STACK_GROWSUP
432                 mpnt->vm_start = stack_base;
433                 mpnt->vm_end = stack_base + arg_size;
434 #else
435                 mpnt->vm_end = stack_top;
436                 mpnt->vm_start = mpnt->vm_end - arg_size;
437 #endif
438                 /* Adjust stack execute permissions; explicitly enable
439                  * for EXSTACK_ENABLE_X, disable for EXSTACK_DISABLE_X
440                  * and leave alone (arch default) otherwise. */
441                 if (unlikely(executable_stack == EXSTACK_ENABLE_X))
442                         mpnt->vm_flags = VM_STACK_FLAGS |  VM_EXEC;
443                 else if (executable_stack == EXSTACK_DISABLE_X)
444                         mpnt->vm_flags = VM_STACK_FLAGS & ~VM_EXEC;
445                 else
446                         mpnt->vm_flags = VM_STACK_FLAGS;
447                 mpnt->vm_flags |= mm->def_flags;
448                 mpnt->vm_page_prot = protection_map[mpnt->vm_flags & 0x7];
449                 if ((ret = insert_vm_struct(mm, mpnt))) {
450                         up_write(&mm->mmap_sem);
451                         kmem_cache_free(vm_area_cachep, mpnt);
452                         return ret;
453                 }
454                 mm->stack_vm = mm->total_vm = vma_pages(mpnt);
455         }
456
457         for (i = 0 ; i < MAX_ARG_PAGES ; i++) {
458                 struct page *page = bprm->page[i];
459                 if (page) {
460                         bprm->page[i] = NULL;
461                         install_arg_page(mpnt, page, stack_base);
462                 }
463                 stack_base += PAGE_SIZE;
464         }
465         up_write(&mm->mmap_sem);
466         
467         return 0;
468 }
469
470 EXPORT_SYMBOL(setup_arg_pages);
471
472 #define free_arg_pages(bprm) do { } while (0)
473
474 #else
475
476 static inline void free_arg_pages(struct linux_binprm *bprm)
477 {
478         int i;
479
480         for (i = 0; i < MAX_ARG_PAGES; i++) {
481                 if (bprm->page[i])
482                         __free_page(bprm->page[i]);
483                 bprm->page[i] = NULL;
484         }
485 }
486
487 #endif /* CONFIG_MMU */
488
489 struct file *open_exec(const char *name)
490 {
491         struct nameidata nd;
492         int err;
493         struct file *file;
494
495         nd.intent.open.flags = FMODE_READ;
496         err = path_lookup(name, LOOKUP_FOLLOW|LOOKUP_OPEN, &nd);
497         file = ERR_PTR(err);
498
499         if (!err) {
500                 struct inode *inode = nd.dentry->d_inode;
501                 file = ERR_PTR(-EACCES);
502                 if (!(nd.mnt->mnt_flags & MNT_NOEXEC) &&
503                     S_ISREG(inode->i_mode)) {
504                         int err = permission(inode, MAY_EXEC, &nd);
505                         if (!err && !(inode->i_mode & 0111))
506                                 err = -EACCES;
507                         file = ERR_PTR(err);
508                         if (!err) {
509                                 file = dentry_open(nd.dentry, nd.mnt, O_RDONLY);
510                                 if (!IS_ERR(file)) {
511                                         err = deny_write_access(file);
512                                         if (err) {
513                                                 fput(file);
514                                                 file = ERR_PTR(err);
515                                         }
516                                 }
517 out:
518                                 return file;
519                         }
520                 }
521                 path_release(&nd);
522         }
523         goto out;
524 }
525
526 EXPORT_SYMBOL(open_exec);
527
528 int kernel_read(struct file *file, unsigned long offset,
529         char *addr, unsigned long count)
530 {
531         mm_segment_t old_fs;
532         loff_t pos = offset;
533         int result;
534
535         old_fs = get_fs();
536         set_fs(get_ds());
537         /* The cast to a user pointer is valid due to the set_fs() */
538         result = vfs_read(file, (void __user *)addr, count, &pos);
539         set_fs(old_fs);
540         return result;
541 }
542
543 EXPORT_SYMBOL(kernel_read);
544
545 static int exec_mmap(struct mm_struct *mm)
546 {
547         struct task_struct *tsk;
548         struct mm_struct * old_mm, *active_mm;
549
550         /* Notify parent that we're no longer interested in the old VM */
551         tsk = current;
552         old_mm = current->mm;
553         mm_release(tsk, old_mm);
554
555         if (old_mm) {
556                 /*
557                  * Make sure that if there is a core dump in progress
558                  * for the old mm, we get out and die instead of going
559                  * through with the exec.  We must hold mmap_sem around
560                  * checking core_waiters and changing tsk->mm.  The
561                  * core-inducing thread will increment core_waiters for
562                  * each thread whose ->mm == old_mm.
563                  */
564                 down_read(&old_mm->mmap_sem);
565                 if (unlikely(old_mm->core_waiters)) {
566                         up_read(&old_mm->mmap_sem);
567                         return -EINTR;
568                 }
569         }
570         task_lock(tsk);
571         active_mm = tsk->active_mm;
572         tsk->mm = mm;
573         tsk->active_mm = mm;
574         activate_mm(active_mm, mm);
575         task_unlock(tsk);
576         arch_pick_mmap_layout(mm);
577         if (old_mm) {
578                 up_read(&old_mm->mmap_sem);
579                 if (active_mm != old_mm) BUG();
580                 mmput(old_mm);
581                 return 0;
582         }
583         mmdrop(active_mm);
584         return 0;
585 }
586
587 /*
588  * This function makes sure the current process has its own signal table,
589  * so that flush_signal_handlers can later reset the handlers without
590  * disturbing other processes.  (Other processes might share the signal
591  * table via the CLONE_SIGHAND option to clone().)
592  */
593 static inline int de_thread(struct task_struct *tsk)
594 {
595         struct signal_struct *sig = tsk->signal;
596         struct sighand_struct *newsighand, *oldsighand = tsk->sighand;
597         spinlock_t *lock = &oldsighand->siglock;
598         int count;
599
600         /*
601          * If we don't share sighandlers, then we aren't sharing anything
602          * and we can just re-use it all.
603          */
604         if (atomic_read(&oldsighand->count) <= 1) {
605                 BUG_ON(atomic_read(&sig->count) != 1);
606                 exit_itimers(sig);
607                 return 0;
608         }
609
610         newsighand = kmem_cache_alloc(sighand_cachep, GFP_KERNEL);
611         if (!newsighand)
612                 return -ENOMEM;
613
614         if (thread_group_empty(current))
615                 goto no_thread_group;
616
617         /*
618          * Kill all other threads in the thread group.
619          * We must hold tasklist_lock to call zap_other_threads.
620          */
621         read_lock(&tasklist_lock);
622         spin_lock_irq(lock);
623         if (sig->flags & SIGNAL_GROUP_EXIT) {
624                 /*
625                  * Another group action in progress, just
626                  * return so that the signal is processed.
627                  */
628                 spin_unlock_irq(lock);
629                 read_unlock(&tasklist_lock);
630                 kmem_cache_free(sighand_cachep, newsighand);
631                 return -EAGAIN;
632         }
633         zap_other_threads(current);
634         read_unlock(&tasklist_lock);
635
636         /*
637          * Account for the thread group leader hanging around:
638          */
639         count = 2;
640         if (thread_group_leader(current))
641                 count = 1;
642         while (atomic_read(&sig->count) > count) {
643                 sig->group_exit_task = current;
644                 sig->notify_count = count;
645                 __set_current_state(TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE);
646                 spin_unlock_irq(lock);
647                 schedule();
648                 spin_lock_irq(lock);
649         }
650         sig->group_exit_task = NULL;
651         sig->notify_count = 0;
652         spin_unlock_irq(lock);
653
654         /*
655          * At this point all other threads have exited, all we have to
656          * do is to wait for the thread group leader to become inactive,
657          * and to assume its PID:
658          */
659         if (!thread_group_leader(current)) {
660                 struct task_struct *leader = current->group_leader, *parent;
661                 struct dentry *proc_dentry1, *proc_dentry2;
662                 unsigned long exit_state, ptrace;
663
664                 /*
665                  * Wait for the thread group leader to be a zombie.
666                  * It should already be zombie at this point, most
667                  * of the time.
668                  */
669                 while (leader->exit_state != EXIT_ZOMBIE)
670                         yield();
671
672                 spin_lock(&leader->proc_lock);
673                 spin_lock(&current->proc_lock);
674                 proc_dentry1 = proc_pid_unhash(current);
675                 proc_dentry2 = proc_pid_unhash(leader);
676                 write_lock_irq(&tasklist_lock);
677
678                 if (leader->tgid != current->tgid)
679                         BUG();
680                 if (current->pid == current->tgid)
681                         BUG();
682                 /*
683                  * An exec() starts a new thread group with the
684                  * TGID of the previous thread group. Rehash the
685                  * two threads with a switched PID, and release
686                  * the former thread group leader:
687                  */
688                 ptrace = leader->ptrace;
689                 parent = leader->parent;
690                 if (unlikely(ptrace) && unlikely(parent == current)) {
691                         /*
692                          * Joker was ptracing his own group leader,
693                          * and now he wants to be his own parent!
694                          * We can't have that.
695                          */
696                         ptrace = 0;
697                 }
698
699                 ptrace_unlink(current);
700                 ptrace_unlink(leader);
701                 remove_parent(current);
702                 remove_parent(leader);
703
704                 switch_exec_pids(leader, current);
705
706                 current->parent = current->real_parent = leader->real_parent;
707                 leader->parent = leader->real_parent = child_reaper;
708                 current->group_leader = current;
709                 leader->group_leader = leader;
710
711                 add_parent(current, current->parent);
712                 add_parent(leader, leader->parent);
713                 if (ptrace) {
714                         current->ptrace = ptrace;
715                         __ptrace_link(current, parent);
716                 }
717
718                 list_del(&current->tasks);
719                 list_add_tail(&current->tasks, &init_task.tasks);
720                 current->exit_signal = SIGCHLD;
721                 exit_state = leader->exit_state;
722
723                 write_unlock_irq(&tasklist_lock);
724                 spin_unlock(&leader->proc_lock);
725                 spin_unlock(&current->proc_lock);
726                 proc_pid_flush(proc_dentry1);
727                 proc_pid_flush(proc_dentry2);
728
729                 if (exit_state != EXIT_ZOMBIE)
730                         BUG();
731                 release_task(leader);
732         }
733
734         /*
735          * Now there are really no other threads at all,
736          * so it's safe to stop telling them to kill themselves.
737          */
738         sig->flags = 0;
739
740 no_thread_group:
741         BUG_ON(atomic_read(&sig->count) != 1);
742         exit_itimers(sig);
743
744         if (atomic_read(&oldsighand->count) == 1) {
745                 /*
746                  * Now that we nuked the rest of the thread group,
747                  * it turns out we are not sharing sighand any more either.
748                  * So we can just keep it.
749                  */
750                 kmem_cache_free(sighand_cachep, newsighand);
751         } else {
752                 /*
753                  * Move our state over to newsighand and switch it in.
754                  */
755                 spin_lock_init(&newsighand->siglock);
756                 atomic_set(&newsighand->count, 1);
757                 memcpy(newsighand->action, oldsighand->action,
758                        sizeof(newsighand->action));
759
760                 write_lock_irq(&tasklist_lock);
761                 spin_lock(&oldsighand->siglock);
762                 spin_lock(&newsighand->siglock);
763
764                 current->sighand = newsighand;
765                 recalc_sigpending();
766
767                 spin_unlock(&newsighand->siglock);
768                 spin_unlock(&oldsighand->siglock);
769                 write_unlock_irq(&tasklist_lock);
770
771                 if (atomic_dec_and_test(&oldsighand->count))
772                         kmem_cache_free(sighand_cachep, oldsighand);
773         }
774
775         if (!thread_group_empty(current))
776                 BUG();
777         if (!thread_group_leader(current))
778                 BUG();
779         return 0;
780 }
781         
782 /*
783  * These functions flushes out all traces of the currently running executable
784  * so that a new one can be started
785  */
786
787 static inline void flush_old_files(struct files_struct * files)
788 {
789         long j = -1;
790
791         spin_lock(&files->file_lock);
792         for (;;) {
793                 unsigned long set, i;
794
795                 j++;
796                 i = j * __NFDBITS;
797                 if (i >= files->max_fds || i >= files->max_fdset)
798                         break;
799                 set = files->close_on_exec->fds_bits[j];
800                 if (!set)
801                         continue;
802                 files->close_on_exec->fds_bits[j] = 0;
803                 spin_unlock(&files->file_lock);
804                 for ( ; set ; i++,set >>= 1) {
805                         if (set & 1) {
806                                 sys_close(i);
807                         }
808                 }
809                 spin_lock(&files->file_lock);
810
811         }
812         spin_unlock(&files->file_lock);
813 }
814
815 void get_task_comm(char *buf, struct task_struct *tsk)
816 {
817         /* buf must be at least sizeof(tsk->comm) in size */
818         task_lock(tsk);
819         strncpy(buf, tsk->comm, sizeof(tsk->comm));
820         task_unlock(tsk);
821 }
822
823 void set_task_comm(struct task_struct *tsk, char *buf)
824 {
825         task_lock(tsk);
826         strlcpy(tsk->comm, buf, sizeof(tsk->comm));
827         task_unlock(tsk);
828 }
829
830 int flush_old_exec(struct linux_binprm * bprm)
831 {
832         char * name;
833         int i, ch, retval;
834         struct files_struct *files;
835         char tcomm[sizeof(current->comm)];
836
837         /*
838          * Make sure we have a private signal table and that
839          * we are unassociated from the previous thread group.
840          */
841         retval = de_thread(current);
842         if (retval)
843                 goto out;
844
845         /*
846          * Make sure we have private file handles. Ask the
847          * fork helper to do the work for us and the exit
848          * helper to do the cleanup of the old one.
849          */
850         files = current->files;         /* refcounted so safe to hold */
851         retval = unshare_files();
852         if (retval)
853                 goto out;
854         /*
855          * Release all of the old mmap stuff
856          */
857         retval = exec_mmap(bprm->mm);
858         if (retval)
859                 goto mmap_failed;
860
861         bprm->mm = NULL;                /* We're using it now */
862
863         /* This is the point of no return */
864         steal_locks(files);
865         put_files_struct(files);
866
867         current->sas_ss_sp = current->sas_ss_size = 0;
868
869         if (current->euid == current->uid && current->egid == current->gid)
870                 current->mm->dumpable = 1;
871         name = bprm->filename;
872
873         /* Copies the binary name from after last slash */
874         for (i=0; (ch = *(name++)) != '\0';) {
875                 if (ch == '/')
876                         i = 0; /* overwrite what we wrote */
877                 else
878                         if (i < (sizeof(tcomm) - 1))
879                                 tcomm[i++] = ch;
880         }
881         tcomm[i] = '\0';
882         set_task_comm(current, tcomm);
883
884         current->flags &= ~PF_RANDOMIZE;
885         flush_thread();
886
887         if (bprm->e_uid != current->euid || bprm->e_gid != current->egid || 
888             permission(bprm->file->f_dentry->d_inode,MAY_READ, NULL) ||
889             (bprm->interp_flags & BINPRM_FLAGS_ENFORCE_NONDUMP)) {
890                 suid_keys(current);
891                 current->mm->dumpable = 0;
892         }
893
894         /* An exec changes our domain. We are no longer part of the thread
895            group */
896
897         current->self_exec_id++;
898                         
899         flush_signal_handlers(current, 0);
900         flush_old_files(current->files);
901
902         return 0;
903
904 mmap_failed:
905         put_files_struct(current->files);
906         current->files = files;
907 out:
908         return retval;
909 }
910
911 EXPORT_SYMBOL(flush_old_exec);
912
913 /* 
914  * Fill the binprm structure from the inode. 
915  * Check permissions, then read the first 128 (BINPRM_BUF_SIZE) bytes
916  */
917 int prepare_binprm(struct linux_binprm *bprm)
918 {
919         int mode;
920         struct inode * inode = bprm->file->f_dentry->d_inode;
921         int retval;
922
923         mode = inode->i_mode;
924         /*
925          * Check execute perms again - if the caller has CAP_DAC_OVERRIDE,
926          * generic_permission lets a non-executable through
927          */
928         if (!(mode & 0111))     /* with at least _one_ execute bit set */
929                 return -EACCES;
930         if (bprm->file->f_op == NULL)
931                 return -EACCES;
932
933         bprm->e_uid = current->euid;
934         bprm->e_gid = current->egid;
935
936         if(!(bprm->file->f_vfsmnt->mnt_flags & MNT_NOSUID)) {
937                 /* Set-uid? */
938                 if (mode & S_ISUID) {
939                         current->personality &= ~PER_CLEAR_ON_SETID;
940                         bprm->e_uid = inode->i_uid;
941                 }
942
943                 /* Set-gid? */
944                 /*
945                  * If setgid is set but no group execute bit then this
946                  * is a candidate for mandatory locking, not a setgid
947                  * executable.
948                  */
949                 if ((mode & (S_ISGID | S_IXGRP)) == (S_ISGID | S_IXGRP)) {
950                         current->personality &= ~PER_CLEAR_ON_SETID;
951                         bprm->e_gid = inode->i_gid;
952                 }
953         }
954
955         /* fill in binprm security blob */
956         retval = security_bprm_set(bprm);
957         if (retval)
958                 return retval;
959
960         memset(bprm->buf,0,BINPRM_BUF_SIZE);
961         return kernel_read(bprm->file,0,bprm->buf,BINPRM_BUF_SIZE);
962 }
963
964 EXPORT_SYMBOL(prepare_binprm);
965
966 static inline int unsafe_exec(struct task_struct *p)
967 {
968         int unsafe = 0;
969         if (p->ptrace & PT_PTRACED) {
970                 if (p->ptrace & PT_PTRACE_CAP)
971                         unsafe |= LSM_UNSAFE_PTRACE_CAP;
972                 else
973                         unsafe |= LSM_UNSAFE_PTRACE;
974         }
975         if (atomic_read(&p->fs->count) > 1 ||
976             atomic_read(&p->files->count) > 1 ||
977             atomic_read(&p->sighand->count) > 1)
978                 unsafe |= LSM_UNSAFE_SHARE;
979
980         return unsafe;
981 }
982
983 void compute_creds(struct linux_binprm *bprm)
984 {
985         int unsafe;
986
987         if (bprm->e_uid != current->uid)
988                 suid_keys(current);
989         exec_keys(current);
990
991         task_lock(current);
992         unsafe = unsafe_exec(current);
993         security_bprm_apply_creds(bprm, unsafe);
994         task_unlock(current);
995         security_bprm_post_apply_creds(bprm);
996 }
997
998 EXPORT_SYMBOL(compute_creds);
999
1000 void remove_arg_zero(struct linux_binprm *bprm)
1001 {
1002         if (bprm->argc) {
1003                 unsigned long offset;
1004                 char * kaddr;
1005                 struct page *page;
1006
1007                 offset = bprm->p % PAGE_SIZE;
1008                 goto inside;
1009
1010                 while (bprm->p++, *(kaddr+offset++)) {
1011                         if (offset != PAGE_SIZE)
1012                                 continue;
1013                         offset = 0;
1014                         kunmap_atomic(kaddr, KM_USER0);
1015 inside:
1016                         page = bprm->page[bprm->p/PAGE_SIZE];
1017                         kaddr = kmap_atomic(page, KM_USER0);
1018                 }
1019                 kunmap_atomic(kaddr, KM_USER0);
1020                 bprm->argc--;
1021         }
1022 }
1023
1024 EXPORT_SYMBOL(remove_arg_zero);
1025
1026 /*
1027  * cycle the list of binary formats handler, until one recognizes the image
1028  */
1029 int search_binary_handler(struct linux_binprm *bprm,struct pt_regs *regs)
1030 {
1031         int try,retval;
1032         struct linux_binfmt *fmt;
1033 #ifdef __alpha__
1034         /* handle /sbin/loader.. */
1035         {
1036             struct exec * eh = (struct exec *) bprm->buf;
1037
1038             if (!bprm->loader && eh->fh.f_magic == 0x183 &&
1039                 (eh->fh.f_flags & 0x3000) == 0x3000)
1040             {
1041                 struct file * file;
1042                 unsigned long loader;
1043
1044                 allow_write_access(bprm->file);
1045                 fput(bprm->file);
1046                 bprm->file = NULL;
1047
1048                 loader = PAGE_SIZE*MAX_ARG_PAGES-sizeof(void *);
1049
1050                 file = open_exec("/sbin/loader");
1051                 retval = PTR_ERR(file);
1052                 if (IS_ERR(file))
1053                         return retval;
1054
1055                 /* Remember if the application is TASO.  */
1056                 bprm->sh_bang = eh->ah.entry < 0x100000000UL;
1057
1058                 bprm->file = file;
1059                 bprm->loader = loader;
1060                 retval = prepare_binprm(bprm);
1061                 if (retval<0)
1062                         return retval;
1063                 /* should call search_binary_handler recursively here,
1064                    but it does not matter */
1065             }
1066         }
1067 #endif
1068         retval = security_bprm_check(bprm);
1069         if (retval)
1070                 return retval;
1071
1072         /* kernel module loader fixup */
1073         /* so we don't try to load run modprobe in kernel space. */
1074         set_fs(USER_DS);
1075         retval = -ENOENT;
1076         for (try=0; try<2; try++) {
1077                 read_lock(&binfmt_lock);
1078                 for (fmt = formats ; fmt ; fmt = fmt->next) {
1079                         int (*fn)(struct linux_binprm *, struct pt_regs *) = fmt->load_binary;
1080                         if (!fn)
1081                                 continue;
1082                         if (!try_module_get(fmt->module))
1083                                 continue;
1084                         read_unlock(&binfmt_lock);
1085                         retval = fn(bprm, regs);
1086                         if (retval >= 0) {
1087                                 put_binfmt(fmt);
1088                                 allow_write_access(bprm->file);
1089                                 if (bprm->file)
1090                                         fput(bprm->file);
1091                                 bprm->file = NULL;
1092                                 current->did_exec = 1;
1093                                 return retval;
1094                         }
1095                         read_lock(&binfmt_lock);
1096                         put_binfmt(fmt);
1097                         if (retval != -ENOEXEC || bprm->mm == NULL)
1098                                 break;
1099                         if (!bprm->file) {
1100                                 read_unlock(&binfmt_lock);
1101                                 return retval;
1102                         }
1103                 }
1104                 read_unlock(&binfmt_lock);
1105                 if (retval != -ENOEXEC || bprm->mm == NULL) {
1106                         break;
1107 #ifdef CONFIG_KMOD
1108                 }else{
1109 #define printable(c) (((c)=='\t') || ((c)=='\n') || (0x20<=(c) && (c)<=0x7e))
1110                         if (printable(bprm->buf[0]) &&
1111                             printable(bprm->buf[1]) &&
1112                             printable(bprm->buf[2]) &&
1113                             printable(bprm->buf[3]))
1114                                 break; /* -ENOEXEC */
1115                         request_module("binfmt-%04x", *(unsigned short *)(&bprm->buf[2]));
1116 #endif
1117                 }
1118         }
1119         return retval;
1120 }
1121
1122 EXPORT_SYMBOL(search_binary_handler);
1123
1124 /*
1125  * sys_execve() executes a new program.
1126  */
1127 int do_execve(char * filename,
1128         char __user *__user *argv,
1129         char __user *__user *envp,
1130         struct pt_regs * regs)
1131 {
1132         struct linux_binprm *bprm;
1133         struct file *file;
1134         int retval;
1135         int i;
1136
1137         retval = -ENOMEM;
1138         bprm = kmalloc(sizeof(*bprm), GFP_KERNEL);
1139         if (!bprm)
1140                 goto out_ret;
1141         memset(bprm, 0, sizeof(*bprm));
1142
1143         file = open_exec(filename);
1144         retval = PTR_ERR(file);
1145         if (IS_ERR(file))
1146                 goto out_kfree;
1147
1148         sched_exec();
1149
1150         bprm->p = PAGE_SIZE*MAX_ARG_PAGES-sizeof(void *);
1151
1152         bprm->file = file;
1153         bprm->filename = filename;
1154         bprm->interp = filename;
1155         bprm->mm = mm_alloc();
1156         retval = -ENOMEM;
1157         if (!bprm->mm)
1158                 goto out_file;
1159
1160         retval = init_new_context(current, bprm->mm);
1161         if (retval < 0)
1162                 goto out_mm;
1163
1164         bprm->argc = count(argv, bprm->p / sizeof(void *));
1165         if ((retval = bprm->argc) < 0)
1166                 goto out_mm;
1167
1168         bprm->envc = count(envp, bprm->p / sizeof(void *));
1169         if ((retval = bprm->envc) < 0)
1170                 goto out_mm;
1171
1172         retval = security_bprm_alloc(bprm);
1173         if (retval)
1174                 goto out;
1175
1176         retval = prepare_binprm(bprm);
1177         if (retval < 0)
1178                 goto out;
1179
1180         retval = copy_strings_kernel(1, &bprm->filename, bprm);
1181         if (retval < 0)
1182                 goto out;
1183
1184         bprm->exec = bprm->p;
1185         retval = copy_strings(bprm->envc, envp, bprm);
1186         if (retval < 0)
1187                 goto out;
1188
1189         retval = copy_strings(bprm->argc, argv, bprm);
1190         if (retval < 0)
1191                 goto out;
1192
1193         retval = search_binary_handler(bprm,regs);
1194         if (retval >= 0) {
1195                 free_arg_pages(bprm);
1196
1197                 /* execve success */
1198                 security_bprm_free(bprm);
1199                 acct_update_integrals(current);
1200                 update_mem_hiwater(current);
1201                 kfree(bprm);
1202                 return retval;
1203         }
1204
1205 out:
1206         /* Something went wrong, return the inode and free the argument pages*/
1207         for (i = 0 ; i < MAX_ARG_PAGES ; i++) {
1208                 struct page * page = bprm->page[i];
1209                 if (page)
1210                         __free_page(page);
1211         }
1212
1213         if (bprm->security)
1214                 security_bprm_free(bprm);
1215
1216 out_mm:
1217         if (bprm->mm)
1218                 mmdrop(bprm->mm);
1219
1220 out_file:
1221         if (bprm->file) {
1222                 allow_write_access(bprm->file);
1223                 fput(bprm->file);
1224         }
1225
1226 out_kfree:
1227         kfree(bprm);
1228
1229 out_ret:
1230         return retval;
1231 }
1232
1233 int set_binfmt(struct linux_binfmt *new)
1234 {
1235         struct linux_binfmt *old = current->binfmt;
1236
1237         if (new) {
1238                 if (!try_module_get(new->module))
1239                         return -1;
1240         }
1241         current->binfmt = new;
1242         if (old)
1243                 module_put(old->module);
1244         return 0;
1245 }
1246
1247 EXPORT_SYMBOL(set_binfmt);
1248
1249 #define CORENAME_MAX_SIZE 64
1250
1251 /* format_corename will inspect the pattern parameter, and output a
1252  * name into corename, which must have space for at least
1253  * CORENAME_MAX_SIZE bytes plus one byte for the zero terminator.
1254  */
1255 static void format_corename(char *corename, const char *pattern, long signr)
1256 {
1257         const char *pat_ptr = pattern;
1258         char *out_ptr = corename;
1259         char *const out_end = corename + CORENAME_MAX_SIZE;
1260         int rc;
1261         int pid_in_pattern = 0;
1262
1263         /* Repeat as long as we have more pattern to process and more output
1264            space */
1265         while (*pat_ptr) {
1266                 if (*pat_ptr != '%') {
1267                         if (out_ptr == out_end)
1268                                 goto out;
1269                         *out_ptr++ = *pat_ptr++;
1270                 } else {
1271                         switch (*++pat_ptr) {
1272                         case 0:
1273                                 goto out;
1274                         /* Double percent, output one percent */
1275                         case '%':
1276                                 if (out_ptr == out_end)
1277                                         goto out;
1278                                 *out_ptr++ = '%';
1279                                 break;
1280                         /* pid */
1281                         case 'p':
1282                                 pid_in_pattern = 1;
1283                                 rc = snprintf(out_ptr, out_end - out_ptr,
1284                                               "%d", current->tgid);
1285                                 if (rc > out_end - out_ptr)
1286                                         goto out;
1287                                 out_ptr += rc;
1288                                 break;
1289                         /* uid */
1290                         case 'u':
1291                                 rc = snprintf(out_ptr, out_end - out_ptr,
1292                                               "%d", current->uid);
1293                                 if (rc > out_end - out_ptr)
1294                                         goto out;
1295                                 out_ptr += rc;
1296                                 break;
1297                         /* gid */
1298                         case 'g':
1299                                 rc = snprintf(out_ptr, out_end - out_ptr,
1300                                               "%d", current->gid);
1301                                 if (rc > out_end - out_ptr)
1302                                         goto out;
1303                                 out_ptr += rc;
1304                                 break;
1305                         /* signal that caused the coredump */
1306                         case 's':
1307                                 rc = snprintf(out_ptr, out_end - out_ptr,
1308                                               "%ld", signr);
1309                                 if (rc > out_end - out_ptr)
1310                                         goto out;
1311                                 out_ptr += rc;
1312                                 break;
1313                         /* UNIX time of coredump */
1314                         case 't': {
1315                                 struct timeval tv;
1316                                 do_gettimeofday(&tv);
1317                                 rc = snprintf(out_ptr, out_end - out_ptr,
1318                                               "%lu", tv.tv_sec);
1319                                 if (rc > out_end - out_ptr)
1320                                         goto out;
1321                                 out_ptr += rc;
1322                                 break;
1323                         }
1324                         /* hostname */
1325                         case 'h':
1326                                 down_read(&uts_sem);
1327                                 rc = snprintf(out_ptr, out_end - out_ptr,
1328                                               "%s", system_utsname.nodename);
1329                                 up_read(&uts_sem);
1330                                 if (rc > out_end - out_ptr)
1331                                         goto out;
1332                                 out_ptr += rc;
1333                                 break;
1334                         /* executable */
1335                         case 'e':
1336                                 rc = snprintf(out_ptr, out_end - out_ptr,
1337                                               "%s", current->comm);
1338                                 if (rc > out_end - out_ptr)
1339                                         goto out;
1340                                 out_ptr += rc;
1341                                 break;
1342                         default:
1343                                 break;
1344                         }
1345                         ++pat_ptr;
1346                 }
1347         }
1348         /* Backward compatibility with core_uses_pid:
1349          *
1350          * If core_pattern does not include a %p (as is the default)
1351          * and core_uses_pid is set, then .%pid will be appended to
1352          * the filename */
1353         if (!pid_in_pattern
1354             && (core_uses_pid || atomic_read(&current->mm->mm_users) != 1)) {
1355                 rc = snprintf(out_ptr, out_end - out_ptr,
1356                               ".%d", current->tgid);
1357                 if (rc > out_end - out_ptr)
1358                         goto out;
1359                 out_ptr += rc;
1360         }
1361       out:
1362         *out_ptr = 0;
1363 }
1364
1365 static void zap_threads (struct mm_struct *mm)
1366 {
1367         struct task_struct *g, *p;
1368         struct task_struct *tsk = current;
1369         struct completion *vfork_done = tsk->vfork_done;
1370         int traced = 0;
1371
1372         /*
1373          * Make sure nobody is waiting for us to release the VM,
1374          * otherwise we can deadlock when we wait on each other
1375          */
1376         if (vfork_done) {
1377                 tsk->vfork_done = NULL;
1378                 complete(vfork_done);
1379         }
1380
1381         read_lock(&tasklist_lock);
1382         do_each_thread(g,p)
1383                 if (mm == p->mm && p != tsk) {
1384                         force_sig_specific(SIGKILL, p);
1385                         mm->core_waiters++;
1386                         if (unlikely(p->ptrace) &&
1387                             unlikely(p->parent->mm == mm))
1388                                 traced = 1;
1389                 }
1390         while_each_thread(g,p);
1391
1392         read_unlock(&tasklist_lock);
1393
1394         if (unlikely(traced)) {
1395                 /*
1396                  * We are zapping a thread and the thread it ptraces.
1397                  * If the tracee went into a ptrace stop for exit tracing,
1398                  * we could deadlock since the tracer is waiting for this
1399                  * coredump to finish.  Detach them so they can both die.
1400                  */
1401                 write_lock_irq(&tasklist_lock);
1402                 do_each_thread(g,p) {
1403                         if (mm == p->mm && p != tsk &&
1404                             p->ptrace && p->parent->mm == mm) {
1405                                 __ptrace_unlink(p);
1406                         }
1407                 } while_each_thread(g,p);
1408                 write_unlock_irq(&tasklist_lock);
1409         }
1410 }
1411
1412 static void coredump_wait(struct mm_struct *mm)
1413 {
1414         DECLARE_COMPLETION(startup_done);
1415
1416         mm->core_waiters++; /* let other threads block */
1417         mm->core_startup_done = &startup_done;
1418
1419         /* give other threads a chance to run: */
1420         yield();
1421
1422         zap_threads(mm);
1423         if (--mm->core_waiters) {
1424                 up_write(&mm->mmap_sem);
1425                 wait_for_completion(&startup_done);
1426         } else
1427                 up_write(&mm->mmap_sem);
1428         BUG_ON(mm->core_waiters);
1429 }
1430
1431 int do_coredump(long signr, int exit_code, struct pt_regs * regs)
1432 {
1433         char corename[CORENAME_MAX_SIZE + 1];
1434         struct mm_struct *mm = current->mm;
1435         struct linux_binfmt * binfmt;
1436         struct inode * inode;
1437         struct file * file;
1438         int retval = 0;
1439
1440         binfmt = current->binfmt;
1441         if (!binfmt || !binfmt->core_dump)
1442                 goto fail;
1443         down_write(&mm->mmap_sem);
1444         if (!mm->dumpable) {
1445                 up_write(&mm->mmap_sem);
1446                 goto fail;
1447         }
1448         mm->dumpable = 0;
1449         init_completion(&mm->core_done);
1450         spin_lock_irq(&current->sighand->siglock);
1451         current->signal->flags = SIGNAL_GROUP_EXIT;
1452         current->signal->group_exit_code = exit_code;
1453         spin_unlock_irq(&current->sighand->siglock);
1454         coredump_wait(mm);
1455
1456         /*
1457          * Clear any false indication of pending signals that might
1458          * be seen by the filesystem code called to write the core file.
1459          */
1460         current->signal->group_stop_count = 0;
1461         clear_thread_flag(TIF_SIGPENDING);
1462
1463         if (current->signal->rlim[RLIMIT_CORE].rlim_cur < binfmt->min_coredump)
1464                 goto fail_unlock;
1465
1466         /*
1467          * lock_kernel() because format_corename() is controlled by sysctl, which
1468          * uses lock_kernel()
1469          */
1470         lock_kernel();
1471         format_corename(corename, core_pattern, signr);
1472         unlock_kernel();
1473         file = filp_open(corename, O_CREAT | 2 | O_NOFOLLOW | O_LARGEFILE, 0600);
1474         if (IS_ERR(file))
1475                 goto fail_unlock;
1476         inode = file->f_dentry->d_inode;
1477         if (inode->i_nlink > 1)
1478                 goto close_fail;        /* multiple links - don't dump */
1479         if (d_unhashed(file->f_dentry))
1480                 goto close_fail;
1481
1482         if (!S_ISREG(inode->i_mode))
1483                 goto close_fail;
1484         if (!file->f_op)
1485                 goto close_fail;
1486         if (!file->f_op->write)
1487                 goto close_fail;
1488         if (do_truncate(file->f_dentry, 0) != 0)
1489                 goto close_fail;
1490
1491         retval = binfmt->core_dump(signr, regs, file);
1492
1493         if (retval)
1494                 current->signal->group_exit_code |= 0x80;
1495 close_fail:
1496         filp_close(file, NULL);
1497 fail_unlock:
1498         complete_all(&mm->core_done);
1499 fail:
1500         return retval;
1501 }